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日本地震所展现的另一面

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小编摘要:这场灾难不仅让人注意到,传统上被描绘为富国的日本存在着经济不平等,还让人注意到了城市精英面对贫困地区时那种高高在上和漠不经心的态度。


   

自古以来,日本人就因面对天灾时表现出的宿命主义反应而闻名。他们对最近灾难的平静反应令外国观察人士惊讶不已。但这种令人敬畏的传奇表现也有着更为阴暗的一面。这场灾难不仅让人注意到,传统上被描绘为富国的日本存在着经济不平等,还让人注意到了城市精英面对贫困地区时那种高高在上和漠不经心的态度。
Since ancient times, the Japanese people have been known for their fatalistic response to catastrophe. Their calm reaction to the latest disaster amazes foreign observers. But there is a darker side to this awful saga. The disaster has drawn attention to not only the economic disparities in what is traditionally depicted as a wealthy nation, but also to the high-handed and heedless stance of the urban elite towards poorer areas.
最明显的例子就是日本东北地区的贫困,那里已被此次地震和海啸摧毁。海边小镇的生活从来都不容易。制造业从未在这一地区扎根。长期以来,许多人不得不移居到大城市,寻找季节性工作贴补家用。在最近这起灾难中,无数居住在十分拥挤的村镇的人们,一瞬间就失去了生计——甚至丧失了生命。
The starkest example of this concerns the poverty of the northern Tohoku region, which was devastated by the earthquake and tsunami. Life in its seaside towns has never been easy. Manufacturing never took root in the region and many people have traditionally had to migrate to the big cities, seeking seasonal work to support their families. In this latest disaster, countless people in closely packed settlements lost their livelihoods – if not their lives – in an instant.
建设核电站时,当地居民收到了丰厚的补贴。这也是为什么东北地区居民和地方政府甘冒风险同意把核电站建在当地。可以说,核电站矗立在海岸线的景象,就是该地区所特有的不平等的产物。
When nuclear power stations are built, local residents receive generous subsidies. That is why, in spite of the risks, residents and local governments of Tohoku consented to host them in their region. The sight of such plants along the coastline is arguably one product of the disparities characterising the region.
东京的大企业和政治人物似乎对这些不平等视而不见。从东京电力公司(Tokyo Electric Power Company)对待核电站维护工作的态度中,我们就可隐约看出这家城市企业对边远地区的倨傲。东京和其它城市的财富并没有渗透到边远地区,而边远地区却不得不承受核电等风险。
Major corporations and politicians in Tokyo seemed oblivious of these disparities. Tokyo Electric Power Company’s approach towards the maintenance of nuclear power plants hints at the complacency of a large urban-based organisation with regard to outlying regions. The wealth of Tokyo and other cities fails to trickle down to outlying regions while those same areas have to accept risks, such as nuclear power.
日本政府也对我们这个小国悬殊的贫富差距毫无反应,采取了“不闻不问”的态度。虽然执政党民主党(DPJ)主张的民粹主义政策引起了不小的反响,但对于经济不平等,民主党却比此前执政的自民党(LDP)更不敏感。如今,命运给我们带来了一场辐射恐慌,对大城市机构和企业媒体的“漠不关心”提出了警告。可是东京仍然不为所动。
The government has also been insensitive, adopting a “do-nothing” attitude to the large disparities in our small country. Though the populist policies espoused by the ruling Democratic Party of Japan resonate, this government has been even less sensitive to economic disparities than were its predecessors in the Liberal Democratic party. Now fate has sent a radiation scare, which serves as a warning against the “obliviousness” of the big-city organisations and the corporate media. Yet Tokyo has nothing to say.
9/11恐怖袭击暴露了摩天大楼的弱点,而摩天大楼正是城市社会的象征。3/11日本天灾显示出众神对城市生活之自负和傲慢的愤怒。
The September 11 terrorist attacks exposed the vulnerability of the skyscraper, the symbol of urban society. The March 11 disaster in Japan reveals the anger of the gods at the complacency and arrogance of urban life.
迄今为止,城市规划和建筑设计一直都是我们这个以城市为中心的时代的工具。建筑师和规划师一样,都仅仅是在为城市的需求而服务。责任不应当只由政治人物和商界领袖承担,设计景观的建筑师和规划师也应承担起责任。我们“漠不关心地”将城市流行设计中轻浮、半透明的元素推向地方,强加给地方居民。
To date, urban planning and architectural design have been the tools of our city-centric era. Architects and planners alike have served only urban needs. The responsibility lies not just with politicians and business leaders, but can also be assigned to the architects and planners who designed our landscape. We have “obliviously” pushed the light, translucent elements of popular urban design on to local regions and their citizens.
东京设计中肤浅乃至浮夸的透明元素,已经嵌入了日本的各个地区。认定这种设计风格“很酷”的人们一直在模仿东京。因此,地方无论是在物质方面还是在文化方面都遭到了削弱。过去,日本各地都因自己独特的文化优势而得到认可,然而在20世纪人们的目光却转向东京,地方则被弱化了。
The glib, and even facile transparency of Tokyo design, has become embedded in every area of Japan. People who are convinced this style of design is “cool” have continuously imitated Tokyo. So local regions have become physically – and culturally – weakened. In the past, Japan’s regions were recognised for their unique cultural strengths, but in the 20th century eyes have turned to Tokyo and local regions have been weakened.
现在,我们必须重新思考该如何为特定的地方设计建筑。每个地方都有自己的历史、文化——以及潜在的风险。每个地方都应当采取适于应对当地特殊风险的设计风格。
Now we must rethink how we design buildings for particular locations. Each place has its own history, culture – and potential risk. Each place must adopt a design that is adapted to the specific risks of an area.
20世纪,在工业成为经济的主要重心后,别具特色的小镇风情就不再受到认可。然而,随着服务业在本世纪成为重心,我们必须向能为国民经济注入活力的地方小镇倾注更多注意力。
The appeal of small towns with a particular character was not recognised in the 20th century when industry was the economy’s main focus. However, as service industries become the focus in this century, we have to devote more attention to regional towns that can add vitality to the national economy.
建筑师还必须对指导我们规划的地图重新进行评估。效仿东京、巴黎或纽约毫无益处。我们必须研究地图,评估各个地方的风险和潜力。只有通过评估这些因素,我们才能拿出对建筑、城镇乃至我们国家的真正有力的设计。这次地震震醒了我们,让我们认识到自己的自负之处:城市人轻视地方已经太久。
Architects, too, must re-evaluate the maps that guide our planning. Looking at Tokyo, Paris or New York is no use. We must study the maps, and assess the risks and potential of each region. Only by evaluating such factors can we create a truly powerful design of buildings and towns but also of our nation. The earthquake has jolted us out of a complacency: for too long we in the cities have looked down on the provinces.
注:本文作者是日本屡获大奖的建筑师、隈研吾建筑都市设计事务所(Kengo Kuma & Associates)所长。
The writer, an award-winning architect, is principal of Kengo Kuma & Associates
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2011-04-14 12:01 编辑:icetonado
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