Optimists are wiser than their pessimistic peers, and bitterness keeps a person from being wise because they haven't learned lessons, Canadian researchers say.
Dolores Pushkar, a professor at Concordia University in Montreal, says wisdom and intelligence aren't the same thing and she estimates only 5 percent of the population can be described as truly wise.
Pushkar and co-authors Andrew Burr, Sarah Etezadi, Tracy Lyster and Sheila Mason say no single definition of wisdom exists, but many agree it involves knowledge, understanding human nature, life contentment, empathy and the flexibility to see issues from others' perspectives.
“Wisdom has an impact on how people cope in situations and whether they are more or less satisfied with life,” Etezadi says.
The researchers say overwhelming and prolonged stress are injustices that can prevent people from garnering wisdom.
Pushkar says wise people often highlight common sense -- but what makes them different than most is how they follow their own advice.
“We found that people who are wiser maintain a sense of happiness,” Etezadi says: “They are high on wisdom, which has a buffering effect.”
2011-04-12 08:27 编辑：甯老师
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