独立主格的结构1：名词（代词）+ 分词 [现在分词、过去分词]
54. Silver is the best conductor of electricity, copper _B_ it closely.
A followed B following C to follow D being followed
49. All things _A_, the planned trip will have to be called off.
A considered B be considered C considering D having considered
call off 取消； cancel vt. 取消； 四级中的考点就是现在分词和过去分词的区别。
独立主格的结构2：with + 名词（代词）+ 分词 [句子当中作状语]
36. After the Arab states won independence, great emphasis was laid on expanding education, with girls as well as boys _C_ to go to school.
A to be encouraged B been encouraged C being encouraged D be encouraged
as well as 和（相当于and）； be encouraged不会考。
动词不定式有预示将来行为的含义。to be encouraged 将要被鼓励；
been encouraged 已经被鼓励完了，与主句的谓语动词相对；being encouraged 正在被鼓励
43.No matter how frequently _A_, the works of Beethoven always attract large audiences.
A performed B performing C to be performed D being performed
perform vt. 表演，演出，演奏；
to be performed 将要被演奏； being performed 正在被演奏；
第一点：forget 忘记； [反义] remember 记得；
forget to do sth. 忘记要去做某事； forget doing sth. 忘记做过某事；
remember to do sth. 记得要去做某事； remember doing sth. 记得做过某事；
62. I remember _B_ to help us if we ever got into trouble.
A once offering B him once offering C him to offer D to offer him
offer vt. 提出，提供； offer sb. sth. / offer to do sth.
him once offering 如果改成 his once offering 也正确。
动作发出者 + 动名词；当动作发出者名字给出时：名词所有格 + 动名词；当动名词的复合结构在文章中出现，且动作发出者在前文中提过时：形容词物主代词（宾格）+ 动名词。
形容词物主代词：his, her, my, your, their, our。代词宾格：him, her, me, you, us, them。
第二点：want 想要； want to do sth. 想做某事； want doing 客观需要或缺乏。
48. Your hair wants _B_. You'd better have it done tomorrow.
A cut B cutting C to cut D being cut
注意：want doing 中doing表示的是被动含义。
18. This room is so dirty that it wants _A_.
A cleaning B to clean C being cleaned D cleaned
第三点：mean 意味； mean to do sth. 打算做某事，意欲… ；mean doing 意味着，…的意思是…
25. There's a man at the reception desk who seems very angry and I think he means _B_ trouble. [reception desk 接待台]
A making B to make C to have made D having made
55. The children went there to watch the iron tower _D_.
A to erect B be erected C erecting D being erected
watch 看电视用，看比赛用； see 看电影用；
感官动词watch, see, hear； 感官动词 + 名词（代词）+ do
be erected 强调的是动作的结果； being erected 强调的是动作的过程。
56. The engine _D_ smoke and steam.
A gives up B gives in C gives away D gives off
give up 放弃； give in 屈服，让步； give off 释放，放出（烟和气体）；
give away 泄露，走漏风声；婚礼中新郎的父亲把新娘的手交给新郎的过程；赠送礼品。
57. The manager promised to keep me _C_ of how our business was going on.
A to be informed B on informing C informed D informing
keep sb. + 分词； inform v. 通知，告知； inform sb. of sth. 通知某人某件事情
keep me informed 使我被告知。
60. The goals _B_ he had fought all his life no longer seemed important to him.
A after which B for which C with which D at which
fight with sb. （注意要看整个句子）； fight with + 工具 用该工具来打仗。 fight for 为…而战。
I fight with him. 我和他打起来了。 I fight with him against her. 我和他并肩对付她。
61. I should like to rent a house, modern, comfortable and _B_ in a quiet neighborhood.
A all in all B above all C after all D over all
all in all 总而言之；above all 首先，尤其是；after all 毕竟，终究；overall 全面的，总体的
in a word 总之，in short 简而言之，in conclusion 最后，总之，to sum up总之，总而言之。
62. _B_ we have finished the course, we shall start doing more revision work.
A For now B Now that C Ever since D By now
now that 既然，由于（相当于since）； ever since 自从…以来。
now that 既然，由于； in that 因为； except that 除…之外。
63. What you have done is _D_ the doctor’s orders.
A attached to B responsible to C resistant to D contrary to
be attached to 连接，附属； This school is attached to Beida. 这所学校附属于北大。
responsible to 对…负有责任； resistant adj. 反抗的，抵抗的； water resistant 防水的。
be contrary to 与..相反（相违背）。
64. John regretted _A_ to the meeting last week.
A not going B not to go C not having been going D not to be going
regret doing 后悔做过某事； regret to do sth. 遗憾的做某事（应用语境非常有限）。
63. We regret to inform you that the materials you ordered are _B_.
A out of work B out of stock C out of reach D out of practice
out of work 失业； out of reach 够不着 within reach 够得着； out of practice 缺乏练习。
65. They _C_ in spite of the extremely difficult conditions.
A carried out B carried off C carried on D carried forward
in spite of 尽管； carry on 坚持，继续。
66. Mrs. Brown is supposed _A_ for Italy last week.
A to have left B to be leaving C to leave D to have been left
be supposed to do sth. 应该（理应）做某事。
37. He’s watching TV? He’s _D_ to be cleaning his room.
A known B considered C regarded D supposed
regard as 把…认作
67. My camera can be _B_ to take pictures in cloudy or sunny conditions.
A treated B adjusted C adopted D remedied
treat 对待，处理； I’ll treat you. 我请客，应用于真正请客之前。It’s on me. 应用于结帐时。
adjust vt. 调整，调节； adopt vt. 收养，领养； remedy vt. 弥补，补救，修正；
68. A new technique _C_, the yields as a whole increased by 20 percent.
A working out B having worked out
C having been worked out D to have been worded out
yields 产量； work out 作出，推出
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