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日本灾民安置面临重重困难

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小编摘要:在海啸席卷日本北部地区两周以后,大多数幸存者都分到了食品和饮用水。但下一阶段的重要救援工作,即为大约20万挤在学校和公共设施里的灾民找到相对固定的居所则被证明更加困难。


在海啸席卷日本北部地区两周以后,大多数幸存者都分到了食品和饮用水。但下一阶段的重要救援工作,即为大约20万挤在学校和公共设施里的灾民找到相对固定的居所则被证明更加困难。
Two weeks after tsunami waves swept across northern Japan, food and water are getting through to most survivors. But the next important phase of the relief effort─finding a more permanent home for the 200,000 or so evacuees huddled in schools and other public buildings─is proving more difficult.
Reuters日本大津市的一座小学成了灾民的避难所。在大船渡(Ofunato)这个小小的海滨社区,5,000多名流离失所者被安置在53个不同地点,包括学校,庙宇和一些私人住宅。有关部门已经开始建设70套临时住房,但是这远远不能满足需求。
In this small seaside community, more than 5,000 displaced people are housed in 53 different locations, including schools, temples and some private residences. Authorities have started construction on 70 units of temporary housing, but that's far short of what will be needed.
49岁的建筑师浦岛(Hitoshi Urashima)说,这是一所学校,我们不能永远呆在这里。看着他现在居住的学校体育馆里的邻居,浦岛说,所有这些人都无家可归。浦岛位于海滨的家在3月11日被完全摧毁。
'This is a school, we can't stay here forever,' said Hitoshi Urashima, a 49-year-old architect whose waterfront home was obliterated on March 11. 'All these people have no place to go back to,' he said, motioning to neighbors in the gymnasium where he now lives.
市政府官员说他们在以最快的速度行动。
City officials say they are moving as fast as they can.
大船渡应急准备部门的官员村上智(Satoshi Murakami)说,我们希望灾民能够尽快恢复正常生活,所以我们努力尽快将灾民安置到临时居所。村上智说下个月灾民就可以搬进大船渡的首个临时居住点了。
'We want people to be able to return to their normal lives, so we are trying to get people into temporary housing as soon as possible,' said Satoshi Murakami, an official in Ofunato's emergency preparedness department. He says residents will be able to move into that town's first units next month.
但大船渡和其它社区一样,政府官员也在和一系列拖延新房建设速度的挑战做斗争。电力、燃料和基本设备往往短缺。一些城市还没有幸存者和遇难者的完整名单,更不用说幸存者所需的住房等设施了。
But in Ofunato, as in other communities, administrators are struggling with an array of challenges making it hard to ramp up construction of new housing quickly. Power, fuel and basic equipment often aren't available. Some cities don't have a full read on who lived and died, much less what the survivors need in terms of housing.
其它一些社区正在探讨是否将灾民安置到离海较远的内陆。还有一些政府虽然想建新房,但却找不到建筑地点。
Other communities are debating whether to move people farther inland. Some governments just can't figure out where to put new houses, if they build them.
虽然许多社区在海啸破坏临时住房的建筑工地之前就已经制定了应急方案,但还是有很多地方被海啸破坏,或无法供应水电。政府数据显示,迄今为止大约2,600套住房已经确定了建筑地点,但救援专家说超过5万套住房需要建设。
Although many communities had contingency plans before the tsunami designating sites for temporary-home construction, many of the areas were damaged by the tsunami or can't be served by utilities. About 2,600 housing units have secured building sites so far, according to government figures, though relief experts say more than 50,000 may be needed.
为灾民找到更多永久住所的紧迫性正在上升。救援人员说政府开办的疏散中心整洁卫生,物资齐全。一些疏散中心甚至为被救出的狗和猫准备了宠物食品。但疏散中心缺乏隐私,取暖条件也不好。一些疏散中心位于空旷的体育馆内,尽管室外的温度已经降到最低零下六摄氏度,但这些疏散中心只能用局部供暖装置给灾民供暖。救援人员说,伤风和流感正迅速传播。
The urgency to find more-permanent homes for evacuees is increasing. Aid workers say government-run evacuation centers are clean and well-stocked─some even have stockpiles of pet food for rescued dogs and cats─but they lack privacy, and are often difficult to heat. Some are located in cavernous gymnasiums with only space heaters to keep people warm, even as temperatures outside drop to as low as minus-6 degrees Celsius. Colds and flus are spreading rapidly, aid workers say.
政府官员已经将一些灾民转移安置到别的城市的公寓和酒店。数以万计的灾民已经离开了公共避难所,投靠在日本其它地区的亲戚。但可供政府官员安置灾民的酒店和寓所也用完了,很多剩下的灾民在日本其它地区也没有亲戚。
Government officials have moved some victims to apartments and hotels in other cities. Tens of thousands of other evacuees have left public shelters to join family members in other parts of Japan. But officials are running out of apartment and hotel options and many remaining residents don't have family elsewhere.
为了加快新房建设速度,日本有关部门已经要求位于东京的一家房地产公司同业公会从都道府县政府那里接受项目,并开工建设。这家同业公会叫做日本预制建筑用品及制造商协会(Japan Prefabricated Construction Supplies & Manufacturers Association)。都道府县政府预计将支付相关费用,然后从日本政府那里获得大部分费用的补偿。
To speed up new housing, Japanese authorities have asked a Tokyo-based trade association of housing companies, the Japan Prefabricated Construction Supplies & Manufacturers Association, to take orders from prefectural governments and then start building. Prefectural governments are expected to pay the fees and then be reimbursed by the national government for most of the cost.
到目前为止,该协会已收到了要求建设33,215间房舍的请求,每间造价约500万日圆(合6.1万美元)。建设这些房屋一般需要三到四周的时间,设计使用年限为两年,在人们以家庭为单位得到更永久的住房安排之前,市民可免费住在这些房屋里,但水电等杂费需要自行缴纳。最常见的房型虽然面积较小,但带有两间卧室和一个厨房。
So far, the association has received requests for 33,215 residential quarters, with each one costing about Y5 million ($61,000)。 The homes, which are free to residents except for utilities, usually take 3 to 4 weeks to build and are designed to last for two years, until families make more-permanent arrangements. The most common models are small but have two bedrooms and a kitchen.
据日本国土交通省官员桥本公博(Kimihiro Hashimoto)说,会尽快修建这类房屋。
Such housing will be built as 'soon as possible,' said Kimihiro Hashimoto, an official from Japan's ministry of land, infrastructure, transport and tourism.
日本陆前高田市(Rikuzentakata)目前正在建设三十多座这样的房屋,该市1万多人现在住在学校和其它避难所里。一批建筑工人正在用螺丝固定活动房屋,再用榔头敲打,将其组装到一起,活动房屋似乎保温性能良好,并会通暖气。
Three dozen units are already being built in the town of Rikuzentakada, where more than 10,000 people are living in schools and other shelters. The prefabricated buildings, being screwed and hammered together by an army of construction workers, appear to be well-insulated and will be heated.
首批灾民将于4月1日入住活动房屋。日本官员说,将优先考虑老人和带小孩的家庭入住。
The first residents will start moving in April 1. Priority for housing will be given to the elderly and families with small children, officials say.
但陆前高田市市长刀羽太(音)(Futoshi Toba)一直催促所在省和中央政府官员加紧行动。他说,首相菅直人(Naoto Kan)跟他提议,应在陆前高田市重建时把市民应该先转移至另一个市镇,但该市有大批年事已高的居民,因此这一解决方案不太现实。
But the mayor, Futoshi Toba, has been pressing provincial and central government officials to move faster. He says Prime Minister Naoto Kan suggested the mayor prepare residents to move to another municipality while their town is being rebuilt, but the large number of senior citizens in Rikuzentakada made that an impractical solution.
在日本海滨城市名取市(Natori),500多人丧生,2,000人仍下落不明,现在仍有约2,000人住在学校和政府大楼等疏散安置点。日本官员计划在远离海边的政府大院内修建100座临时房屋,最早将于下周动工。
In the seaside city of Natori, where more than five hundred people were killed and thousands are still missing, around 2,000 people are still in evacuation settlements in schools and other government buildings. Officials plan to build 100 temporary homes on government property away from the sea, with construction starting as early as next week.
日本官员承认,这还不够。但他们说,他们还有其它要务亟待处理,如重新提供水电以及核定生还者等等。
Officials acknowledge that won't be enough. But they say they have had other priorities, such as restarting power and water and assessing who is still alive.
名取市市政厅领导紧急援助工作的主要官员之一吉田清春(音)(Kiyoharu Yoshida)说,我们需要知道有多少人生还。
'We need to know how many people are left,' said Kiyoharu Yoshida, one of the city officials leading the emergency response from City Hall.
吉田清春说,名取市考虑过把无人居住的公寓租给需要栖身之地的人们,但手里有钱的那些海啸灾民很快就把绝大多数可供租用的公寓租光了。
He said the city thought about renting empty apartments for people that need a place to stay, but most of the available options were snapped up quickly by tsunami victims who have money.
两个街区以外,有200多人住在一个文化中心里,身上盖着好几层毯子,周围是用硬纸板竖起的矮小屏障。一些人说,市里来没有人跟他们讨论过搬迁计划。
Two blocks away, more than 200 people are living in layers of blankets surrounded by short barriers fashioned from cardboard in a cultural center. No one from the city has come to discuss relocation plans with them, some said.
60岁的摄影师Yukitaka Aizawa说,海啸发生已经两周了,他们没有派任何人到这里来。海啸来袭时,他逃出来时把所有镜头和电脑设备都留在了家里。现在他和母亲、妻子、一个表兄、一个姑母及其他几个人共住一个小房间。
'It's been two weeks and they haven't sent anyone over here,' said Yukitaka Aizawa, 60, a photographer who left all of his lenses and computer gear behind when he fled the tsunami waves. He now shares a small room with his mother, his wife, a cousin, an aunt and several other people.
向他们提供的食品、水和暖气供应比较稳定,但他要带母亲去附近的朋友家洗澡,他想知道什么时候他们才能住进像朋友家这样的房子里。
They have a regular flow of food and water and heat, but he has to take his mother to a friend's house nearby to bathe, and wonders how long they can live like this.
他说,我觉得我们可能要组建个代表团,代表灾民去市政厅反映情况。
'I guess we may have to make some kind of delegation to represent victims and go to City Hall,' he said.
Aizawa说,虽然他与家人正在考虑去租一个公寓,但他们的决定将取决于政府会给他们提供什么样的援助或临时房舍,以及要得到这些还要等多久。
While Mr. Aizawa and his family are considering trying to rent an apartment, he said their decision will depend on what kind of aid or temporary shelter the government offers, and how long it will take to deliver.
他说,我在电视上看到一些市长已经召开市政会议讨论这些问题,而我们还在等,如果不知道政府的打算,我们就无法计划以后的日子。
'On television I see some building and some city mayors already calling town meetings to discuss these things. We are still waiting,' he said. 'We cannot plan for the future without knowing what the government will do.'
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2011-03-29 11:22 编辑:icetonado
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