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到底哪里算安全? 日本就疏散区范围起争端

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小编摘要:日本福岛第一核电站(Fukushima Daiichi nuclear complex)因受损释放出大量辐射,政府划定核电站周围19公里以内为疏散区。根据一项最新评估,该疏散区以外部分地区的辐射水平超出了政府规定的婴儿可接受上限。该评估


日本福岛第一核电站(Fukushima Daiichi nuclear complex)因受损释放出大量辐射,政府划定核电站周围19公里以内为疏散区。根据一项最新评估,该疏散区以外部分地区的辐射水平超出了政府规定的婴儿可接受上限。该评估引发了国际社会就民众应与该核电站保持多远距离展开争论。
Levels of radioactivity from Japan's damaged Fukushima Daiichi nuclear complex are above government limits for infants in some areas outside the plant's 12-mile evacuation zone, according to the latest estimate to fuel an international debate over how close civilians should be allowed to the plant.
Associated Press周四在一处避难所,因为被损坏的福岛核电站引起了核泄漏,一名年轻的撤离者在接受扫描。日本政府支持的核监管机构做出这项最新评估之际,人们对东京自来水的担忧已经减轻。周四的检测显示,东京一家主要供水厂的放射性物质已降至政府所说的会对婴儿构成健康风险的水平以下。周二和周三在该水厂检测出高水平辐射,导致政府发出警告,瓶装水销售量增加。
The new estimate, by a state-funded monitoring body, came as fears over Tokyo's tap water eased. Tests Thursday showed radioactive material in a major plant supplying water to the capital has fallen beneath the level the government says could pose long-term health risks to infants. Elevated levels at the plant Tuesday and Wednesday sparked official warnings and bottled-water sales.
政府监管机构日本原子力安全技术中心(Nuclear Safety Technology Center)于周三晚发布了这项有关福岛第一核电站周边地区累计辐射剂量的评估。评估涵盖了自3月11日发生地震和海啸以来12天的记录。这次灾难导致核电站多次失火、爆炸和辐射水平升高。
Japan's Nuclear Safety Technology Center, a government monitoring group, released the estimate late Wednesday of the cumulative exposure to radiation in zones surrounding the Fukushima Daiichi complex. The estimate covered the 12 days since Japan's March 11 earthquake and tsunami spurred fires, explosions and spikes in radioactivity levels at the complex.
这项评估是对核电站周边不同地点采集的辐射水平数据进行建模而得出的。评估表明,超过政府规定标准辐射剂量的地区大部分位于19公里疏散区内。
The estimate -- produced by modeling radiation readings collected at various points around the plant -- suggested that most areas with radiation that exceeded government thresholds fell within the 12-mile evacuation zone.
但建模结果还显示,12天累计辐射剂量超过100毫西弗的地区超出了疏散区。100毫西弗是政府规定的婴儿可接受上限。根据这些数据所画的地图显示,累计辐射量为100毫西弗的地区远及距核电站40公里左右的东北部和南部。
But the model showed that areas where cumulative exposure over 12 days reached 100 millisieverts -- the government's maximum for infants -- extended beyond the evacuation zone. A map based on the data showed areas that received a cumulative 100 millisieverts extended as far as about 25 miles northeast and south from the plant.
政府官员说,即便是按照最保守的标准,该中心的评估也不需要扩大疏散范围。他们说,必须要从3月11日地震后一直待在这个区域、并且要一直待在室外,才可能受到这么大剂量的辐射。
Government officials said the center's estimate didn't require a larger evacuation, under even the most conservative standards. They said a person would have to have been in the area, and outdoors for the entire time since the March 11 earthquake, to receive that full dose.
尽管如此,检测结果仍表明,对核电站释放辐射水平的测量存在不确定性。
Still, the test results demonstrate the uncertainty surrounding the measuring of radioactive emissions from the power plant.
在东京这么远的地方,自来水都检测到了高水平辐射,导致人们对日本的食品和水供应颇为担忧。
Elevated levels of radioactive elements have been found as far away as Tokyo in its tap water, prompting worries over the nation's food and water supplies.
周四在东京的新测试表明,东京北部水净化厂的放射性碘-131水平已经大幅降低。本周早些时候同一地点的测试结果显示该元素水平达到了婴儿建议水平的两倍左右。
In Japan's capital on Thursday, new tests showed a sharply lower level of radioactive iodine-131 at the northern Tokyo water-purifying plant where tests earlier this week revealed levels roughly twice those recommended for infants.
周四的测试结果显示,净化厂每千克水含有79贝可放射性,低于每千克100贝可,也就是被认为可供婴儿饮用的水平。东京市官员周四解除了婴儿饮水警告。
The Thursday test showed the plant's water contained 79 becquerels per kilogram -- a measure of radioactive events -- below the 100 becquerels per kilogram level considered acceptable for infants. Tokyo officials Thursday lifted the city's warning about consumption by infants.
碘-131的半衰期在一个星期左右,所以如果没有新的剂量进入,水中的放射性可能就会很快下降。东京都政府官员曾经推测但没有证实:近期的降雨可能将空气中的碘-131冲进了供应东京绝大多数水的河流当中,连带增加了东京的辐射水平。
Iodine-131 has a half-life of about a week, meaning that levels in water could fall quickly if new doses aren't introduced. Tokyo metropolitan government officials have posited, but have not proved, that recent rains could have flushed airborne iodine-131 into rivers that supply the vast majority of Tokyo's water, and also increased radiation levels in Tokyo.
东京政府周四说,一份取自东京的小松菜样本测出了高于政府限值的放射性铯。这是危机开始以来,东京农产品里首次发现放射性物质超过政府限值。
On Thursday, Tokyo's government said radioactive cesium exceeding the government's limit was detected in komatsuna, or Japanese mustard spinach, in a sample taken in Tokyo. It is the first time a radioactive substance exceeding the government limit has been found in farm products in Tokyo since the beginning of the crisis.
有关电站危险情况的数据和估计结果各不相同,曾让日本、美国和其他国家的监管机构犯难。新泻大学(Niigata University)核化学教授工藤久昭(Hisaaki Kudo)说,即使是在一个不大的区域,辐射水平也可以是非常不均衡的。他列举的变量包括风力、地点、不同种类的设备和放射性物质等。
Regulators in Japan, the U.S. and elsewhere have grappled with differing data and estimates of the plant's dangers. 'Even within a small area, radiation levels can be very uneven,' said Hisaaki Kudo, nuclear chemistry professor at Niigata University, citing variables ranging from wind to location to different types of equipment and radioactive material.
日本原子力安全技术中心周三的估计结果有别于日本文部科学省和地方政府3月11日以来每天发布的数据。这些每日发布的测量结果显示放射性水平小幅升高,整体上低于每小时10微西弗。
Wednesday's estimate by Japan's Nuclear Safety Technology Center differs from daily data that Japan's Ministry of Science and local governments have been releasing since March 11. Those daily measures have shown radioactive material at slightly elevated levels of generally under 10 microsieverts per hour.
原子力安全技术中心周三的估计数字判断了放射性物质逸出以来这段时期内的暴露总量,卫生专家说,这样或许能够对健康威胁做更好的评估。该中心利用计算机模拟,根据地貌、天气、风向和风力等因素,对放射性物质的散播程度做出估计。
The Nuclear Safety Technology Center's estimate Wednesday judges the full amount of exposure over the period since the radioactive material was released, which health experts say could be a better gauge of health threats. Its computer simulation estimates how far radioactive materials have spread based on factors including landscape, weather and the direction and speed of winds.
官方强调,这种模拟是基于一种不太可能发生的情形,即一个人一直呆在户外、暴露于放射性物质。
Officials stressed that the simulation is based on an unlikely scenario of a person staying outside the entire time to be exposed to radioactive.
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2011-03-28 11:48 编辑:icetonado
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