International criticism about the adequacy of Japan's radiation monitoring and disclosure is spotlighting the government's handling of potential hazards to the public.
The U.S. late Wednesday recommended its citizens stay outside a radius of 50 miles, or 80 kilometers, of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear complex in northeastern Japan, where government workers and employees of the plant operator are battling to keep nuclear material under control.
福岛县知事佐藤雄平（Yuhei Sato）说，福岛人民的焦虑和愤怒已达到极限。福岛县被疏散出来的民众除了要承受生活在避难所的压力外，还面临着食品和燃料供应短缺的问题，因为一些货运卡车避免前往这一地区。日本内阁官房长官枝野幸男（Yukio Edano）将这种现象称为“过度反应”。
The move shook many in Japan because Japanese authorities asked people within just 12 miles, about 20 kilometers, to leave their homes, and those within 18 miles, about 30 kilometers, simply to stay indoors. Residents also are grappling with reports of higher-than-normal radiation in areas surrounding the power plant, though reported levels so far fall far short of the point at which humans suffer any lasting injury.
周四在华盛顿，奥巴马政府官员和美国核能管制委员会（U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission）的负责人不再直接指责从日本官员或福岛第一核电站运营商处所获得信息的质量。但他们说，美国正在部署人员、飞机及核辐射探测设备，以独立收集有关日本核辐射的信息。美国能源部副部长彭曼（Daniel Poneman）周四下午在白宫的一个情况通报会上说，事故核电站现场的情况真的既复杂又让人困惑。
'People in Fukushima are reaching the limit of anxiety and anger,' said Yuhei Sato, governor of Fukushima prefecture, or state, where the troubled plant is based. In addition to the stress of living in shelters, Fukushima evacuees are facing supply shortages of food and fuels, as some delivery trucks avoided the area in what Chief Cabinet Secretary Yukio Edano described as 'over-reaction.'
In Washington on Thursday, Obama administration officials and the head of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission stopped short of criticizing directly the quality of information received from Japanese officials or the operators of the nuclear plant. But they said the U.S. is deploying personnel, aircraft and radiation detection technology to gather information independently. 'The facts on the ground are genuinely complex and confusing,' said Deputy Energy Secretary Daniel Poneman during a White House briefing in the afternoon.
At Fukushima City, 60 miles from the plant, government monitors recorded radiation of 20 microsieverts per hour, a level that won't have long-term health effects but is roughly 1,000 times higher than in Japanese cities far from the plant.
Also in Fukushima City, radioactive elements, including iodine, cesium-135 and cesium-137, were found in drinking water. The amounts of such elements were roughly one-quarter the levels that will make the water unfit to drink, Fukushima prefecture said.
Japanese government officials defend their limits as prudent. On Thursday, Mr. Edano said radiation levels hadn't changed significantly since the government sent helicopters and fire trucks earlier in the day to cool nuclear waste at the site.
To help soothe the public's fears, Japan's science and technology ministry Wednesday began posting radiation test results in each of Japan's 47 prefectures. In Tokyo, the radiation level was stable around 0.052 microsieverts per hour Thursday and within the city's normal range between 0.028 and 0.079 microsieverts per hour.
Experts say Japanese authorities generally use the same equipment and methodology as their counterparts elsewhere.
国际社会对日本测得的辐射水平存在疑虑，日本民众也怀疑他们听到的并非实情，这些不确定性很大程度源自东京电力公司（Tokyo Electric Power Co.，简称Tepco）。作为3月11日地震和海啸中受损核电站的经营商，该公司不愿发布有关其6个过热反应堆的具体信息，部分反应堆目前正在释放辐射。
U.S. Ambassador John Roos said Wednesday that the U.S. was bringing in its own radiation-detection equipment only to add resources, not because of any deficiencies with Japan's equipment.
Much of the international uncertainty about readings from Japan as well as suspicion among Japanese people that they aren't hearing the truth stems from the reluctance of Tokyo Electric Power Co., the operator of the plant damaged by the March 11 earthquake and tsunami, to release specific information on its six overheating reactors, some of which are now emitting radiation.
周四晚的辐射水平约为美国环境能源署（U.S. Environmental Protection Agency）建议的一年最大辐射量的4倍。
The company, known as Tepco, releases measurements for the plant as a whole. On Thursday night, it said the radiation level there was 3,600 microsieverts per hour, only slightly lower from those seen in the morning. On Monday, radiation levels at the plant's gate had spiked temporarily to more than 11,000 microsieverts per hour, equivalent to what a person is exposed to in 11 years.
Thursday night's level is roughly four times the maximum annual exposure recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
The company, by far the largest operator of nuclear-power plants in Japan, over the past decade also has acknowledged a history of concealing information about accidents and troubles at its nuclear-power plants.
The lack of disclosure of data at certain reactors has become a point of contention at Tepco's briefings with reporters.
The company says it doesn't have specifics because it doesn't want its employees too close to reactor buildings.
The government monitors radiation outside the plant and has recorded alarming spikes over the past week.
On Wednesday afternoon, the government said the radiation level at the gate jumped to 10,900 microsieverts per hour, well above hazardous levels.
The U.S. federal government recommends taking protective actions such as evacuation when doses of radiation could exceed 10,000 microsieverts. The measure has since dropped significantly.
Radiation sickness─temporary drops in white blood cells and lymphocyte often accompanied by nausea and diarrhea─typically starts at radiation levels of around 250,000 microsieverts. Exposure to such levels would also increase the long-term risk of developing leukemia and cancer.
On Thursday, the government increased the maximum allowable exposure to emergency workers at the Fukushima plant to 250,000 microsieverts.
Some Japanese aren't taking chances. Seiko Ishibashi, a 42-year-old yoga instructor, flew to Singapore with her teenage daughter on Tuesday, moving up the departure for a family vacation planned for this weekend. 'Looking at radiation data for different cities in the newspaper, I thought Tokyo would probably be safe but 30 kilometers looked a bit too close,' she said.
2011-03-21 11:24 编辑：icetonado