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日本核事故的深刻启示

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小编摘要:核事故不会去理会什么国界。日本也远不是利用核技术的唯一地震高发国家。我们生活在一个有核世界。我们必须确保核设施安全运转,无论它们建在何处。这是一个深刻的启示,警钟长鸣!

日本核电站爆炸

 

 

现代史上有两起重大核电站事故。1979年,美国三里岛(Three Mile Island)核电站几乎发生核反应堆熔毁;7年后,乌克兰的切尔诺贝利(Chernobyl)核电站发生爆炸。这两起事故都导致人们对核电的支持率大幅下滑。
There have been two significant accidents at nuclear power plants in modern history. A near-meltdown at Three Mile Island in 1979 was followed seven years later by an explosion at Chernobyl in Ukraine. Both led to sharp declines in support for nuclear power.
对于日本福岛(Fukushima)核电站受损会产生何种影响,现在评价还为时过早。在地震造成的损坏导致其中两个核反应堆的冷却系统失灵、损坏反应堆核心后,有关部门仍在竭尽全力确保这座核电站的安全。但是,世人已经看到该处核设施发生爆炸的令人胆寒的画面,还有传言称,工作人员已经暴露于核辐射之下。灾难性的反应堆熔毁是一个令人沮丧的可能性。
It is too early to say what impact the failure at Fukushima in Japan may have. The authorities are still battling to make the plant safe after earthquake damage caused the cooling system to fail in two reactors, damaging their cores. But already the world has seen chilling images of explosions at the facility, and stories are circulating about workers having been exposed to radiation. A catastrophic meltdown is a sombre possibility.
迄今为止,有关部门表现得相对较为开放。他们的行动也相当果断:撤离居民,并且用大量海水冷却反应堆,以遏制热度上升。
So far, the authorities have been relatively open. They have also been decisive; evacuating people and flooding reactors with seawater to contain the build-up of heat.
但是,核事故就像恐怖袭击那样,都会触及公众意识深处的恐惧。这或许可以解释这样一个令人费解之处:在1万多人可能已在地震和海啸中丧生的情况下,福岛核电站的少量伤亡吸引了如此密切的关注。
But nuclear accidents, like terrorist attacks, tap into a deep seam of dread in the public’s consciousness. This may explain why the small number of casualties at Fukushima has attracted such attention at a time when more than 10,000 people may have lost their lives in the wider inundation.
自切尔诺贝利核电站事故以来,全球核电行业的安全记录还算不错。这在一定程度上是由于更好的设计和监测。在这方面取得改进的同时,各方对气候变化的担忧日益加剧,这两个因素结合起来,已促使西方各国政府再次考虑建造核电站。在实现能源安全的渴求推动下,发展中国家正在快速发展核电。
The nuclear industry has had a fair safety record since Chernobyl. This is partly due to better design and monitoring. This improvement has combined with growing concern about climate change to encourage western governments to look again at building reactors. Developing nations, impelled more by the hunger for energy security, are building fast.
在削减碳排放方面,核电应该可以发挥一定的作用。但是,安全方面的担心可能阻止核电行业复兴——至少在西方如此。尽管美国和欧洲对新建核电站的支持近年在缓慢增强,但这种支持仍十分脆弱。哪怕只发生一起严重事故,也可能将其压垮。
Nuclear power should have a part to play in cutting carbon emissions. But safety fears could kill its revival – at least in the west. Although support for new nuclear construction has been creeping up in the US and Europe, it remains brittle. Even one serious accident could shatter it.
切尔诺贝利事故之后,国际原子能机构(IAEA)收紧了标准。20多年过去了,这些标准仍是自愿性质的。这是一种时空倒错的做法,因为在核电行业快速扩张的发展中国家,社会舆论可能不足以约束建设行为。应当采取相关步骤,确保新的核电大国安全运行其核电站。福岛的情况应当醒示各方:当反应堆失灵时,要控制释放出来的能量有多么困难。
After Chernobyl, the International Atomic Energy Agency introduced tighter standards. More than two decades on, these remain voluntary. This is anachronistic now that the industry is expanding especially in developing nations where public opinion may not constrain construction. Steps should be taken to ensure nuclear newcomers run their plants safely. Fukushima is a reminder how difficult it is to control the forces unleashed when reactors fail.
核事故不会去理会什么国界。日本也远不是利用核技术的唯一地震高发国家。我们生活在一个有核世界。我们必须确保核设施安全运转,无论它们建在何处。
Nuclear accidents are no respecters of boundaries. Japan is far from the only earthquake-prone country to harness nuclear technology. We live in a nuclear world. We must ensure facilities are run safely, wherever they are built.
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2011-03-15 14:02 编辑:kuaileyingyu
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  • juliatt 说:

    Nuclear accidents are no respecters of boundaries. Quite true.

    2011-03-15 14:12 回复 支持(0) 反对(0) 沙发
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