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《人性的弱点》第5篇 创造奇迹的信件

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小编摘要:这书中所告诉你的原则,必需出自由衷才会有效果出现。我不希望人们用奸诡的骗术,去欺骗人家;而我所讲的,只是一种新的生活方式。



我敢打赌,我知道你现在在想些什么,你可能正对自己这样锐:「『创造奇迹的信件」!太可笑了,那是卖狗皮膏药的药品广告!」
I'll Bet I know what you are thinking now. You are probably saying toyourself something like this: " 'Letters that produced miraculousresults!' Absurd! Smacks of patent-medicine advertising!"It you are thinking that, I don't blame you. I would probably havethought that myself if I had picked up a book like this fifteen yearsago. Sceptical? Well, I like sceptical people. I spent the first twentyyears of my life in Missouri—and I like people who have to be shown.Almost all the progress ever made in human thought has been madeby the Doubting Thomases, the questioners, the challengers, theshow-me crowd.
如果你有这样的想法,我不会怪你。若是十五年前,我拿起这样的一本书,我也会有那样的想法。是不是觉得怀疑?好吧,我喜欢好「怀疑」的人,我在二十岁以前,一直住在米苏里州……我就喜欢「不相信」的人。似乎人类思想之所以有进步,都是从怀疑、发问,和挑战而来的。
Let's be honest. Is the title, "Letters That Produced MiraculousResults," accurate? No, to be frank with you, it isn't. The truth is, it isa deliberate understatement of fact. Some of the letters reproducedin this chapter harvested results that were rated twice as good asmiracles. Rated by whom? By Ken R. Dyke, one of the best-knownsales promotion men in America, formerly sales promotion managerfor Johns-Manville, and now advertising manager for Colgate-Palmolive Peet Company and Chairman of the Board of theAssociation of National Advertisers.
我们应该诚实,像我用「创造奇迹的信件」这题名是准确的吗?
Mr Dykes says that letters he used to send out, asking forinformation from dealers, seldom brought more than a return of 5 to8 per cent. He said he would have regarded a 15 per cent responseas most extraordinary, and told me that, if his replies had eversoared to 20 per cent, he would have regarded it as nothing short ofa miracle.
嗯、坦白的说,那是不准确的。
But one of Mr Dyke's letters, printed in this chapter, brought 42 1/2per cent; in other words, that letter was twice as good as a miracle.You can't laugh that off. And this letter wasn't a sport, a fluke, anaccident. Similar results were obtained from scores of other letters.How did he do it? Here is the explanation in Ken Dyke's own words:"This astonishing increase in the effectiveness of letters occurredimmediately after I attended Mr Carnegie's course in 'EffectiveSpeaking and Human Relations.' I saw that the approach I hadformerly used was all wrong. I tried to apply the principles taught inthis book—and they resulted in an increase of from 500 to 800 percent in the effectiveness of my letters asking for information."Here is the letter. It pleases the other man by asking him to do thewriter a small favour—a favour that makes him feel important. Myown comments on the letter appear in parentheses. Mr John Blank,Blankville, Indiana.
说实在的,这个标题把事实轻描淡写了!这里所发表的信件,它所获得的结果,被批评有比奇迹好上一倍的效果。谁下这个断语的?那是「坦克」……他是美国一位最著名的推销专家,曾担任「敏维尔公司」推销主任,现在是「比德公司」广告主任,同时也是全国广告联合会的主席。
Dear Mr Blank:
坦克先生说,他以前寄给代理商的询问函件,所得到的覆函,总数不到发出信函的百分之八。如果有百分之十五的回信,他就认为是很不错了。他还这样告诉我,如果回信比例,达到百分之二十,那该是奇迹了。
I wonder if you would mind helping me out of a little difficulty?
可是坦克有一封信,即在本篇中披露出来的这封,它的比例数,竟达到百分之四十二点五,也就是说比「奇迹」还好上一倍。你别发笑,这封信不是儿戏,也不是意外,其它许多信件,也获得了同样的效果。
(Let's get the picture clear. Imagine a lumber dealer in Indianareceiving a letter from an executive of the Johns-Manville Company;and in the first line of the letter, this high-priced executive in NewYork asks the other fellow to help him out of a difficulty. I canimagine the dealer in Indiana saying to himself something like this:"Well, if this chap in New York is in trouble, he has certainly come tothe right person. I always try to be generous and help people. Let'ssee what's wrong with him!")
他是怎么做到的?这是坦克自己说的:
Last year, I succeeded in convincing our company that what ourdealers needed most to help increase their re-roofing sales was ayear 'round direct-mail campaign paid for entirely by Johns-Manville.(The dealer out in Indiana probably says, "Naturally, they ought topay for it. They're hogging most of the profit as it is. They're makingmillions while I'm having hard scratchin' to pay the rent. ... Nowwhat is this fellow in trouble about?")
「在我加入卡耐基先生讲习班后,信件的效力立即增加。我知道我过去所使用的方法完全错误。我试行这本书上的每一个原则,结果我发出的信函,竟增加百分之五百到八百的效果。」
Recently I mailed a questionnaire to the 1,600 dealers who had usedthe plan and certainly was very much pleased with the hundreds ofreplies which showed that they appreciated this form of co-operationand found it most helpful.
这里是原信…这封信里的语气、含意,使人很愿意为发信人做一点事情,并且使对方有一种自重、高贵的感觉。
On the strength of this, we have just released our new direct-mailplan which I know you'll like still better.
我的评语,注在括号里。
But this morning our president discussed with me my report of lastyear's plan and, as presidents will, asked me how much business Icould trace to it. Naturally, I must come to you to help me answerhim.
「亲爱的勃莱克先生:
(That's a good phrase: "I must come to you to help me answer him."The big shot in New York is telling the truth, and he is giving theJohns-Manville dealer in Indiana honest, sincere recognition. Notethat Ken Dyke doesn't waste any time talking about how importanthis company is. Instead, he immediately shows the other fellow howmuch he has to lean on him. Ken Dyke admits that he can't evenmake a report to the president of Johns-Manville without the dealer'shelp. Naturally, the dealer out in Indiana, being human, likes thatkind of talk.)
我不知道你愿不愿意帮我解决一点小困难?
What I'd like you to do is (1) to tell me, on the enclosed postcard,how many roofing and re-roofing jobs you feel last year's direct-mailplan helped you secure, and (2) give me, as nearly as you can, theirtotal estimated value in dollars and cents (based on the total cost ofthe jobs applied).
(让我们先把情形弄清楚……试问一个远在阿里桑那州的木材商,突然接到纽约敏维尔公司一位高级职员的来信;而这封信一开头就说,那位纽约的高级职员,要请对方帮助他解决一项困难。我们可以想象到阿里桑那州的那位木材商,会对自己这样说:
If you'll do this, I'll surely appreciate it and thank you for yourkindness in giving me this information.
「好吧!如果纽约那位先生,真遇到什么困难,那他是找对人了。我一向愿意帮助人家,我看看他到底遇到了什么难题。」)
Sincerely, KEN R. DYKE, Sales Promotion Manager(Note how, in the last paragraph, he whispers "I" and shouts "You."Note how generous he is in his praise: "Surely appreciate," "thankyou," "your kindness.")
去年,我曾使我们公司相信各家木材代理商,销售增加的原因,是由于我们『敏维尔公司」,举办了直接通讯的效果。
Simple letter, isn't it? But it produced "miracles" by asking the otherperson to do a small favour—the performing of which gave him afeeling of importance.
最近,我寄出各商家的询问函件有一千六百封,使我感到兴奋的是,已收到他们覆函数百封,那表示他们赞成这项合作有显著的效果。
That psychology will work, regardless of whether you are sellingasbestos roofs or touring Europe in a Ford.
因此,我们又完成了一项直接通讯的新计划,相信你也会喜欢的。
To illustrate. Homer Croy and I once lost our way while motoringthrough the interior of France. Halting our old Model T, we asked agroup of peasants how we could get to the next big town.
可是,今天早晨我们公司总经理,和我讨论到关于去年所实施计划的报告,并问我关于营业额方面的情形如何,究竟有若干买卖成交?所以,我必需请你帮助我,让我能获得这项资料。
The effect of the question was electrical. These peasants, wearingwooden shoes, regarded all Americans as rich. And automobiles wererare in those regions, extremely rare. Americans touring throughFrance in a car! Surely we must be millionaires. Maybe cousins ofHenry Ford. But they knew something we didn't know. We had moremoney than they had; but we had to come to them hat in hand tofind out how to get to the next town. And that gave them a feelingof importance. They all started talking at once. One chap, thrilled atthis rare opportunity, commanded the others to keep quiet. Hewanted to enjoy all alone the thrill of directing us.
(「请你帮助我获得这项资料」,这是一句很好的措辞,那位纽约大商人说了实在话,而他也给远在阿里桑那州的一个代理商,诚实而恳切的重视。可是需要注意的是:坦克并没有说出一句,他公司如何重视的话。可是,他使对方立即知道,他是如何需要对方的赐予和帮助。
Try this yourself. The next time you are in a strange city, stopsomeone who is below you in the economic and social scale and say:"I wonder if you would mind helping me out of a little difficulty.Won't you please tell me how to get to such and such a place?"Benjamin Franklin used this technique to turn a caustic enemy into alifelong friend. Franklin, a young man at the time, had all his savingsinvested in a small printing business. He managed to get himselfelected clerk of the General Assembly in Philadelphia. That positiongave him the job of doing the official printing. There was good profitin this job, and Ben was eager to keep it. But a menace loomedahead. One of the richest and ablest men in the Assembly dislikedFranklin bitterly. He not only disliked Franklin, but he denounced himin a public talk.
坦克又向对方承认极需要对方帮这个忙;不然无法向总经理作一圆满的报告。阿里桑那州那商人,也具有普通的人性,当然喜欢听这些话。)
That was dangerous, very dangerous. So Franklin resolved to makethe man like him. But how? That was a problem. By doing a favourfor his enemy? No, that would have aroused his suspicions, maybehis contempt. Franklin was too wise, too adroit to be caught in sucha trap. So he did the very opposite. He asked his enemy to do him afavour.
我请求你帮助的是:一、在来函附上的明信片上,请你告诉我,去年你所成交的生意,有那些是由直接通讯获得成功的。二、请你告诉我,那些买卖的总额是多少。如果你肯赐下覆函,我非常感激。我对你所提供的资料,极是珍惜,而且感谢你的好意。
Franklin didn't ask for a loan of ten dollars. No! No! Franklin asked afavour that pleased the other man—a favour that touched his vanity,a favour that gave him recognition, a favour that subtly expressedFranklin's admiration for his knowledge and achievements. Here isthe balance of the story in Franklin's own words:
推销部主任坦克议启」
Having heard that he had in his library a certain very scarce andcurious book, I wrote a note to him, expressing my desire ofperusing that book and requesting that he would do me the favour oflending it to me for a few days.
这是很简单的一封信,是不是?但它却能产生奇迹……因为请对方帮忙,使对方有了自尊、自重的感觉。
He sent it immediately, and I returned it in about a week withanother note expressing strongly my sense of the favour.When next we met in the House, he spoke to me (which he hadnever done before) and with great civility and he ever afterwardmanifested a readiness to serve me on all occasions, so that webecame great friends and our friendship continued to his death.Ben Franklin has been dead now for a hundred and fifty years, butthe psychology that he used, the psychology of asking the other manto do you a favour, goes marching right on.
那种心理学是有效的,不论你是销售海绵屋顶材料,或者是坐福特汽车去欧洲旅行。
For example, it was used with remarkable success by one of mystudents, Albert B. Amsel. For years, Mr Amsel, a salesman ofplumbing and heating materials, had been trying to get the trade ofa certain plumber in Brooklyn. This plumber's business wasexceptionally large and his credit unusually good. But Amsel waslicked from the beginning. The plumber was one of thosedisconcerting individuals who pride themselves on being rough,tough, and nasty. Sitting behind his desk with a big cigar tilted in thecorner of his mouth, he snarled at Amsel every time he opened thedoor, "Don't need a thing today! Don't waste my time and yours!Keep moving!"
现在有这样一个例子:我和卡鲁,有一次去法国内地作汽车旅行的时候,突然迷了路。我们把那部「老爷车」停下,问当地的村民,我们如何可以驶去一个大镇。
Then one day Mr Amsel tried a new technique, a technique that splitthe account wide open, made a friend, and brought many fineorders. Amsel's firm was negotiating for the purchase of a newbranch store in Queens Village on Long Island. It was aneighbourhood the plumber knew well, and one where he did a greatdeal of business. So this time, when Mr Amsel called, he said: "MrC——, I'm not here to sell you anything today. I've got to ask you todo me a favour, if you will. Can you spare me just a minute of yourtime?"
这问路的效果,就像通了电流一样……这些人穿的是木鞋,以为所有美国人都是有钱的,而汽车在那一带,更少见到。驾着汽车游览法国的美国人,一定是百万富翁,也许就是汽车大王「福特」的堂兄堂弟。
"H'm—well," said the plumber, shifting his cigar. "What's on yourmind? Shoot."
可是他们知道的事,有些是我们不知道的。我们比他们有钱,但我们把帽子脱下,恭敬有礼的向他们问路,就给了他们一种自重感。他们立刻开始说话,其中有一个,似乎觉得这是一个难得的机会,叫旁边的人都安静下来,他想要一个人享受这种指出我们迷途的快感。
"My firm is thinking of. opening up a branch store over in QueensVillage," Mr Amsel said. "Now, you know that locality as well asanyone living. So I've come to you to ask what you think about it. Isit a wise move—or not?"
你不妨自己试一试!当你下次到一个陌生的地方,把一个看来经济、社会阶层,比你低的人拦住。问他说:「不知你肯不肯帮我解决一点困难,请你告诉我如何到某某路、某某巷,好吗?」
Here was a new situation! For years this plumber had been gettinghis feeling of importance out of snarling at salesmen and orderingthem to keep moving. But here was a salesman begging him foradvice; yes, a salesman from a big concern wanting his opinion as towhat they should do.
富兰克林就用这种方法,把一个仇人,变成一个终生的朋友。富兰克林年轻的时候,他把所有的积蓄,都投资在一家小型的印刷厂中。他设法让自己被举为费城议会的书记,由于那个职务,能使他做到公家的印刷生意。那位置对他来讲,是很有利的,他希望能够达到这个目的。可是,在他的前方,却有个很大的障碍,议会中有个最富有、最有能力的人,他极不喜欢富兰克林,不但不喜欢,他在演讲中还公开毁谤富兰克林。
"Sit down," he said, pulling forward a chair. And for the next hour,he expatiated on the peculiar advantages and virtues of theplumbing market in Queens Village. He not only approved thelocation of the store, but he focused his intellect on outlining acomplete course of action for the purchase of the property, thestocking of supplies, and the opening of trade. He got a feeling ofimportance by telling a wholesale plumbing concern how to run itsbusiness. From there, he expanded into personal grounds. Hebecame friendly, and told Mr Amsel of his intimate domesticdifficulties and household wars.
这件事对富兰克林非常的危险。所以,富兰克林决心要使那个人喜欢他!
"By the time I left that evening," Mr Amsel says, "I not only had inmy pocket a large initial order for equipment, but I had laid thefoundations of a solid business friendship. I am playing golf now withthis chap who formerly barked and snarled at me. This change in hisattitude was brought about by my asking him to do me a little favourthat made him feel important."
可是,他要如何进行呢?这是个难题……他为那人做些有好处的事?不,那会引起对方的怀疑,说不定更会轻视富兰克林!
Let's examine another of Ken Dyke's letters, and again note howskilfully he applies this "do-me-a-favour" psychology.
富兰克林聪明、能干,他决不会这样做,他做了一椿正巧相反的事,他请那个仇人帮他一次忙。
A few years ago, Mr Dyke was distressed at his inability to getbusiness men, contractors, and architects to answer his lettersasking for information.
富兰克林向那人借十块钱?不,不是的……富兰克林所求于那人的,是触动他的虚荣,一椿使对方认为高兴的事。那是很巧妙的表示,富兰克林对他的智识和成就,表示赞赏。
In those days, he seldom got more than 1 per cent return from hisletters to architects and engineers. He would have regarded 2 percent as very good, and 3 per cent as excellent. And 10 per cent?Why, 10 per cent would have been hailed as a miracle. But the letterthat follows pulled almost 50 per cent. ... Five times as good as amiracle. And what replies! Letters of two and three pages! Lettersglowing with friendly advice and co-operation.
这是富兰克林自写的一段故事。
Here is the letter. You will observe that in the psychology used—even in the phraseology in some places—the letter is almost identicalwith that quoted on pages 188-89. As you peruse this letter, readbetween the lines, try to analyze the feeling of the man who got it.Find out why it produced results five times as good as a miracle.
「我听说他图书室里,有一本极少见到的奇书。我就写了一封信给他,表示很希望能看到他所收藏的那一本书。
Johns-Manville
我请他借我观阅数天,他很快的叫人把我所希求的书送来,一星期后,我如期还给他,同时还附上一封信,表示我很感激他的帮忙。
22 EAST 40th STREET
几天后,我们见面时,他开口跟我讲话--这是从来没有过的事--并且很客气,就从那次以后,他表示愿意帮助我任何一件事,继后我们成了很好的朋友,直到他去世的时候。」
NEW YORK CITY
富兰克林去世迄令已有一百多年了,可是他所应用的心理学,这种请人帮助的心理学,仍然是人们所重视的。
Mr John Doe,
例如:我讲习班里有个学员叫「爱姆赛尔」,他运用这种心理学,获得了很大的成效。爱姆赛尔推销铅管和热气用品已经很多年了;他费尽脑筋,想要跟勃洛克林的一个铅管技师做买卖。
617 Doe Street,
这个铅管技师,生意做得很大,同时信用也非常好,可是爱姆赛尔,一开始就受到了打击。这个铅管技师,是个粗线条的人,是个蛮横、粗暴的人物。他坐在办公桌椅上,嘴上叼着一枝浑粗的雪茄,每次见到爱姆赛尔就这样说:「我今天什么也不要,别浪费我的时间,你走吧!」
Doeville, N.J.
后来有一天,爱姆赛尔尝试了一个新方法,这个方法,使他获得了一个朋友,和很多的订货合同。
Dear Mr Doe:
爱姆赛尔的公司,打算在长岛的皇后村,买一栋房子,开设分公司。那房子正好跟那铅管技师的房子为邻,因此他很熟悉房子的情形。所以,这一次他去见那技师时,就这样说:「某先生,令天我不是来跟你谈买卖的,我是想请你帮一个小忙。如果你方便的话,那只需要一分钟的时间就够了。」
I wonder if you'll help me out of a little difficulty?About a year ago I persuaded our company that one of the thingsarchitects most needed was a catalogue which would give them thewhole story of all J-M building materials and their part in repairingand remodelling homes.
那铅管匠嘴上叼着一只浑粗的雪茄,一付财大气粗的模样,说:「嗯,好吧。你有什么话?快说吧!」
The attached catalogue resulted—the first of its kind. But now ourstock is getting low, and when I mentioned it to our president hesaid (as presidents will) that he would have no objection to anotheredition provided / furnished satisfactory evidence that the cataloguehad done the job for which it was designed.
爱姆赛尔说:「我的公司想在皇后村开一家分公司,你对这里的情形,相信比任何人都清楚,所以我来讨教你一点意见….:,你看这是不是一个很好的计划..」
Naturally, I must come to you for help, and 7 am therefore takingthe liberty of asking you and forty-nine other architects in variousparts of the country to be the jury.
这是过去从没有发生过的情况!这些年来上洹个铅管技师对推销员,都是咆哮怒喝,使他获得--一种高贵感。
To make it quite easy for you, I have written a few simple questionson the back of this letter. And I'll certainly regard it as a personalfavour if you'll check the answers, add any comments that you maywish to make, and then slip this letter into the enclosed stampedenvelope.
可是现在,有个大公司的推销员来请教他、征求他的意见。
Needless to say, this won't obligate you in any way, and I now leaveit to you to say whether the catalogue shall be discontinued orreprinted with improvements based on your experience and advice.In any event, rest assured that I shall appreciate your co-operationvery much. Thank you!
他拉过一张椅子,指了指说:「你坐下,」这次,他花了一小时的时间,详细告诉我,关于皇后村铅业方面的情形。
Sincerely yours, KEN R. DYKE, Sales Promotion Manager.
他不但赞成在这里开设分公司,同时替我计划出购置地产的程序,和购买货物、开业的一切情形。他为一家有规模的铅业公司指示营业方针………从这方面他获得了高贵感。从公事谈到私事,他变得十分友善,同时还告诉爱姆赛尔关于他家庭中困扰的事和冲突。
Another word of warning. I know from experience that some men,reading this letter, will try to use the same psychology mechanically.They will try to boost the other man's ego, not through genuine, realappreciation, but through flattery and insincerity. And their techniquewon't work.
爱姆赛尔说:「那天晚上,我临走的时候,我口袋里不但装进大批定货合同,而且还建立了巩固的商业友谊的基础。我现在和这个过去对我狂吠、咆哮的人,一起打高尔夫球,过去那种态度已完全改变,这是由于我请他帮了一件,使他感到重要的事。」
Remember, we all crave appreciation and recognition, and will doalmost anything to get it. But nobody wants insincerity. Nobodywants flattery.
让我们瞧瞧坦克的另一封信,再看他如何巧妙的运用这种「帮我一个忙」的心理学。
Let me repeat: the principles taught in this book will work only whenthey come from the heart. I am not advocating a bag of tricks. I amtalking about a new way of life.
数年前,坦克先生由于得不到商人、包工、和建筑师回答他询问的信,使他感到非常苦恼
那时候,他发给建筑师、工程师的信,常常收不到百分之一的覆函。他认为有百分之二的覆函,已算不错了,如果是百分之三的话,那就更好了。百分之十如何呢?那该是一项奇迹了。
可是下面的信,差不多得到百分之五十的效果………也就是说,已超过他认为是奇迹的五倍。那是些什么样的回信呢?两、三页满含友善的建议与合作的回信。
这里是原信,你要注意他所用的心理学,和有些地方措辞上的技巧………这封信,跟上次那封,大致相同。
当你看这封信时,要注意字里行间,尽量分析收信人心理上的感受找出它何以会有高出奇迹五倍的效果。
「亲爱的社先生:
我不知道你肯不肯,帮助我解决一点困难?
一年前,我曾向我们公司建议:建筑师们最需要的,是一本商品目录--详列本公司所有的建筑材料,并且说明它的用途。
现在附函寄上一本,这是我们公司第一次提供的服务。
只是目前存书不多,本公司并不反对我再版的建议,但是需要有充份的资料,证明再版的书,能完成一次满意的任务。
所以,这件事希望能获得你的帮助,我请你、还有全国其它四十九位建筑师作我的评判员。
为了不敢使你有太多的麻烦,我在信后附上几个简短的问题,如蒙赐答,感激不尽;并附上回邮,敬希不吝示下。只是这件事不敢对你有所勉强,可是在我来讲,是否将这本目录停止再版,那完全依你的经验、建议为原则。
无论如何,你可确信我很感激你的合作,谢谢你。
坦克谨启」
这里需要提出一句重要的警告………我由经验知道,有些人看过这信,会机械式的运用这种心理学。我们需要尽量鼓起对方的自尊心,但不是运用谄媚,或是虚伪,如果引误了这个出发点,是绝不会有效果的。
必需记住:我们每一个人,都是希望如何被人欣赏、如何被人重视……甚至会不顾一切的去达到这个目的。可是,没有人会接受不诚恳的、虚伪的奉承。
我愿意再说一遍:这书中所告诉你的原则,必需出自由衷才会有效果出现。我不希望人们用奸诡的骗术,去欺骗人家;而我所讲的,只是一种新的生活方式。
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2011-02-15 10:25 编辑:kuaileyingyu
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