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濒死体验

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小编摘要:医生说濒死体验是臆想出来的。

Doctor says near-death experiences are in the mind

For Laura Geraghty, April 1, 2009, started out just as any other day. It was sunny but cool, she remembers.
The mother of two, also a grandmother, was at her job, driving a school bus for the Newton Public School District in suburban Boston, Massachusetts.

Her passengers, special-needs children, were wheelchair-bound.

Seemingly in good health and in good spirits, Geraghty was finishing up her late-morning run, transporting a student and teacher back to Newton South High School, when she realized she was in trouble.

As she was pulling into the school parking lot, she began having sharp stomach pains. She was able to park her bus, but she kept feeling worse.

The pain "went right up my arm and into my chest, and I said, 'Uh-oh, I'm having a heart attack,' " she said.

The teacher ran from the bus to get help. Newton South's nurse, Gail Kramer, and CPR instructor Michelle Coppola arrived moments later with the school's new automated external defibrillator.

Geraghty, barely conscious, was fading fast. She was weak and having trouble breathing. And then she went into full cardiac arrest.

"Her eyes were wide, and all of a sudden she stopped talking to us," Coppola said. "I grabbed the two pads, stuck them on her, started it up, and I'd say within 20 seconds, she had her first shock."

Coppola and Kramer performed CPR while they waited for paramedics.  See an expert give a quick lesson in CPR »

At that point, Geraghty says, her body died. She remembers watching the scene unfold -- as if from above.

"I floated right out of my body. My body was here, and I just floated away. I looked back at it once, and it was there."

Geraghty says she saw deceased loved ones, her mother and her ex-husband.

"It was very peaceful and light and beautiful. And I remember like, when you see someone you haven't seen in a while, you want to hug them, and I remember trying to reach out to my ex-husband, and he would not take my hand. And then they floated away."

Next, she says, she was overwhelmed by "massive energy, powerful, very powerful energy."

"When that was happening, there were pictures of my son and my daughter and my granddaughter, and every second, their pictures flashed in my mind, and then I came back."

What Geraghty had was a near-death experience, fairly common in people who go into sudden cardiac arrest.

Geraghty was down for 57 minutes. No blood pressure, no pulse, no oxygen, no blood flow. She was shocked 21 times before she finally came back with tales of the afterlife.

According to the Near Death Experience Research Foundation, nearly 800 near-death experiences happen every day in the United States.

Dr. Kevin Nelson, a neurologist in Lexington, Kentucky, studies near-death experiences and says they're not imagined. The explanation, he says, lies in the brain itself.

"These are real experiences. And they're experiences that happen at a time of medical crisis and danger," Nelson said.

Humans have a lot of reflexes that help keep us alive, part of the "fight or flight" response that arises when we're confronted with danger.

Nelson thinks that near-death experiences are part of the dream mechanism and that the person having the experience is in a REM, or "rapid eye movement," state.

"Part of our 'fight or flight' reflexes to keep us alive includes the switch into the REM state of consciousness," he said.

During REM sleep, there is increased brain activity and visual stimulation. Intense dreaming occurs as a result.

And the bright light so many people claim to see?

"The activation of the visual system caused by REM is causing the bright lights," Nelson said.

And the tunnel people speak of, he says, is lack of blood flow to the eye. "The eye, the retina of the eye, is one of the most exquisitely sensitive tissues to a loss of blood flow. So when blood flow does not reach the eye, vision fails, and darkness ensues from the periphery to the center. And that is very likely causing the tunnel effect."

Nelson is doing studies now to prove that the same effect results from fainting.

"The most common cause of near-death experience in my research group is fainting. Upwards of 100 million Americans have fainted. That means probably tens of millions of Americans have had these unusual experiences."

But Geraghty says this was no dream. "I know I went someplace else. I know I went someplace else other than here."

Dr. Bill O'Callahan, the emergency room doctor who shocked her back to life, agrees. "Cynics out there would say and agnostics would say that's phenomenon that comes from a dying brain. I think that's hogwash. I firmly believe that people experience these events." Cheating Death: Back from the dead

Bob Schriever, co-founder of the Sudden Cardiac Arrest Association, was refereeing a high school football game seven years ago when he went into cardiac arrest, died and was revived.

He, too, questions the dream explanation. "Why are so many people dreaming the same thing? How can so many people, and there's hundreds of thousands of people who have experienced this, how can we all be dreaming the same thing and describe the exact same thing?"

Schriever says these experiences are so profound that only someone who has gone through them can truly understand.

Seven years later, he is still consumed with his own near-death experience.

"I think about that every morning when I wake up, first thing, during the day, I don't know how many times and every night before I fall asleep. I think about that. People do not understand or appreciate what we go through." Scientist uses poison gas to suspend life

For Geraghty, it's a daily struggle to put the pieces back together again.

"I've been someplace that not everybody can go, and there's not a lot of people you can sit down and have that conversation with," Geraghty said. "My own daughter tells me, 'It's freaky, Mom.' I've literally lost friends over this the minute they hear it." Tweet your own experience and you could win a copy of "Cheating Death"

Geraghty says she became depressed once she left the hospital because her perspective on her entire life changed. She still gets depressed, she says, and is on medication.

"I actually went to my doctor and said to her, 'I think I'm losing my mind. This can't be really happening,' you know, and she said it's OK, it's very hard to understand when you've been through an experience like that."

Geraghty has joined the cardiac arrest group, hoping that connecting with others who understand what she's been through will allow her to come to terms with what happened to her that cool spring day six months ago. And allow her to heal and move on.


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对于Laura Geraghty来说,2009年的4月1日就像任何其他的日子一样开始。她记得那天阳光灿烂但是有点冷。

身为两个孩子的妈妈,同时也身为一个祖母,她当时正在工作,为马萨诸塞州波士顿郊区的牛顿公共地区学校驾驶一辆校车。

她的乘客是必须依靠轮椅的特殊孩子们。

Geraghty看起来很健康,精神也极佳,刚刚结束了她那有点晚的晨跑。当她意识到自己有点麻烦的时候,她正在送一个学生和一个老师回牛顿南部高中。

当她正在将校车停入学校停车场的时候,开始感觉到胃的尖锐疼痛。她勉力将车停好,却感觉到越来越糟糕。

那阵疼痛“上窜到我的手臂和胸口,我喊出来‘哦天呐,我心脏病发作了。’ ”她回想道。

那个老师跑下公交车去求助。牛顿南部高中的护士Gail Kramer和心肺复苏法指导员Michelle Coppola片刻后就到了,带来了学校的新引进的自动除颤仪。

Geraghty几乎已经没有意识了,她的生命在迅速消减。她很虚弱,呼吸困难。然后她的心脏就完全停跳了。

“她瞳孔放大,突然不对我们说话了,”Coppola说,“我抓起了两个垫子,按在她身上,开始做心肺复苏,我得说,20之内她就动了一下。”

Coppola和Kramer一边等急救人员一边施行心肺复苏。

就在那时候,据Geraghty说,她的身体死亡了。她记得看到了展开的画面——就像从空中俯视一样。

“我的灵魂从身体里飘出来了。我的身体在那儿,灵魂却飘走了。我曾经回头看我的身体,它确实在那儿。”

Geraghty说她看见了很爱的故亡人,她的母亲和她的前夫。

“那种场景很平静、灿烂、美丽。当你看见阔别的某人会想要拥抱他们,我记得当时就像这个情景,我想要触碰我的前夫,他却不想拉我的手。然后他们就飘走了。”

接着,她又说,她觉得被“巨大的能量、极其巨大的能量”征服了。

“当这一切发生的时候,有我儿子、女儿和我孙女的画面浮现,每一秒他们的照片都在我脑中闪过,然后我就回来了。”

Geraghty所经历的是一种濒死体验,这种经历在心脏突然停跳的人之间十分普遍。

Geraghty“死”了57分钟。没有血压,没有脉搏,没有呼吸,没有血液流动。她在带着死后生活的传说“回来”之前共动了21次。

根据濒死体验研究基金会的研究,美国每天都会发生近800起濒死体验事件。

Kevin Nelson博士是肯塔基州列星敦市的神经专科医师,研究濒死体验,他说那些体验不是臆想出的。他说原因就在大脑本身。

“这些确是真实体验。它们是发生在生理上的灾难或危险时的体验。”Nelson说。

人类有很多本能反应来帮助我们生存,当我们遭遇危险时部分“挣扎或者飘走”反应就会起作用。

Nelson认为濒死体验是做梦的生理机制的一部分,那些拥有这种体验的人是在REM状态,即“迅疾的眼部运动”中。

“帮助我们生存的‘挣扎或飘走’反射的一部分包括了意识转变到REM状态。”他说。

在REM睡眠过程中,脑部活动和视觉兴奋都会增多。强烈的虚幻感就会发生。

那很多人宣称看到的亮光又怎么解释呢?

“由REM引起的视觉系统活性会引起亮光。”Nelson说。

至于人们谈到的隧道,他说,是眼部血液流动缺乏所致。“眼睛、视网膜,是对于血液流动缺乏最敏感的人体组织之一。所以当血液流动不到眼睛时,视力就会衰退,黑暗就会从神经末梢蔓延到中心。这就极有可能引起隧道效应。”

Nelson正在研究怎样证明那种效应和晕倒的结果一样。

“在我的研究小组中,濒死体验的最常见原因是晕倒。至少1亿的美国人曾经晕倒过。这意味着可能数以万计的美国人曾经有过这种不寻常的经历。”

但Geraghty说这并不能算是梦境。“我记得我去了其他的某个地方,绝对不是这里的某个地方。”

猛击她的背使她醒转过来的急救室医生Bill O’Callahan,同意Nelson所说的。“犬儒学派者和不可知论者会说这是由一个死亡的大脑产生的现象。我认为这是一派胡言。我坚定地认为这只是人类的一种体验。”

心脏骤停组织的成立者之一Bob Schriever七年前在为一次高中足球比赛担任裁判时心脏停跳,死而复生。

他也质疑用做梦来解释。“为什么这么多人都会梦到同一件事?怎么会有这么多人,数以万计的曾经经历过濒死体验的人,都梦到了同样的事,描述完全一样的场景?”

Schriever说这种经历是如此的深刻而奇妙,只有亲身经历过的人才能真正理解。

甚至七年后的今天,他仍然为自己的濒死体验而着迷。

“我每天早上想到的第一件事就是那次经历,每天白天和夜晚入睡之前,我想到那件事的次数不计其数。我一直在思考那件事。人们不能理解或者欣赏我们所经历的。”

对于Geraghty来说,把记忆的碎片再次拼凑在一起是每天必做的功课。

“我曾经去过不是每个人都能去的某地,没那么多可以坐下来跟你谈谈那件事的人,”Geraghty说,“我自己的女儿跟我说,‘那太不可能了,妈妈。’我曾经跟朋友讲过这件事,但他们一听到就对我敬而远之。”(写下你自己的经历,将有机会获得一本《假死亡》)

Geraghty说她曾经在离开医院时变得很绝望,因为她对生命已经看得太透彻了。她说现在她仍然绝望,不过是因为药物治疗。

“我事实上看过医生,对她说,‘我觉得我疯了,这不可能真正发生了。’她说没关系,当你有这样一种经历时确实很难理解。”

Geraghty已经加入了心脏骤停小组,希望和能理解她经历的其他人谈谈在六个月前的那个寒冷春天发生在她身上的事。这样她才能疗伤,继续前行。

标签:濒死 体验
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2011-02-07 13:41 编辑:kuaileyingyu
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