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《人性的弱点》第3篇第10章 人人都喜欢的吸引力

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小编摘要:如果你要获得人们对你的同意的话,在一般情形上,遵守第十项规则,是一件很好的事,那是:激发更高尚的动机。

 

I was reared on the edge of the Jesse James country outin Missouri, and I visited the James farm at Kearney,Missouri, where the son of Jesse James was thenliving.

His wife told me stories of how Jesse robbed trainsand held up banks and then gave money to the neighboringfarmers to pay off their mortgages.

Jesse James probably regarded himself as an idealistat heart, just as Dutch Schultz, "Two Gun” Crowley, AlCapone and many other organized crime “godfathers”did generations later. The fact is that all people you meethave a high regard for themselves and like to be fine andunselfish in their own estimation.

J. Pierpont Morgan observed, in one of his analyticalinterludes, that a person usually has two reasons fordoing a thing: one that sounds good and a real one.

The person himself will think of the real reason. Youdon’t need to emphasize that. But all of us, being idealistsat heart, like to think of motives that sound good.So, in order to change people, appeal to the noblermotives.

Is that too idealistic to work in business? Let’s see.Let’s take the case of Hamilton J. Farrell of the Farrell-MitchellCompany of Glenolden, Pennsylvania. Mr. Farrellhad a disgruntled tenant who threatened to move.The tenant’s lease still had four months to run; nevertheless, he served notice that he was vacating immediately,regardless of lease.

"These people had lived in my house all winter - themost expensive part of the year,” Mr. Farrell said as hetold the story to the class, “and I knew it would be difficultto rent the apartment again before fall. I could seeall that rent income going over the hill and believe me,I saw red.

“Now, ordinarily, I would have waded into that tenantand advised him to read his lease again. I would havepointed out that if he moved, the full balance of his rentwould fall due at once - and that I could, and would,move to collect.

“However, instead of flying off the handle and makinga scene, I decided to try other tactics. So I started likethis: ‘Mr. Doe,’ I said, ‘I have listened to your story,and I still don’t believe you intend to move. Years inthe renting business have taught me something abouthuman nature, and I sized you up in the first place asbeing a man of your word. In fact, I’m so sure of it thatI’m willing to take a gamble.

" ‘Now, here’s my proposition. Lav your decision onthe table for a few days and think it over. If you comeback to me between now and the first of the month,when your rent is due, and tell me you still intend tomove, I give you my word I will accept your decision asfinal. I will privilege you to move and admit to myselfI’ve been wrong in my judgment. But I still believeyou’re a man of your word and will live up to your contract.For after all, we are either men or monkeys - andthe choice usually lies with ourselves!’

“Well, when the new month came around, this gentlemancame to see me and paid his rent in person. He andhis wife had talked it over, he said - and decided to stay.They had concluded that the only honorable thing to dowas to live up to their lease.”

When the late Lord Northcliffe found a newspaperusing a picture of him which he didn’t wantpublished,he wrote the editor a letter. But did he say, “Please do not publish that picture of me any more; I don’t like it”?No, he appealed to a nobler motive. He appealed to therespect and love that all of us have for motherhood. Hewrote, “Please do not publish that picture of me anymore. My mother doesn’t like it.”

When John D. Rockefeller, Jr., wished to stop newspaperphotographers from snapping pictures of his children,he too appealed to the nobler motives. He didn’t,say: “I don’t want their pictures published.” No, he appealedto the desire, deep in all of us, to refrain fromharming children. He said: “You know how it is, boys.You’ve got children yourselves, some of you. And youknow it’s not good for youngsters to get too much publicity.”

When Cyrus H. K. Curtis, the poor boy from Maine,was starting on his meteoric career, which was destinedto make him millions as owner of The Saturday EveningPost and the Ladies’ Home Journal, he couldn’t afford topay his contributors the prices that other magazinespaid. He couldn’t afford to hire first-class authors towrite for money alone. So he appealed to their noblermotives. For example, he persuaded even Louisa MayAlcott, the immortal author of Little Women, to write forhim when she was at the flood tide of her fame; and hedid it by offering to send a check for a hundred dollars,not to her, but to her favorite charity.

Right here the skeptic may say: “Oh, that stuff is allright for Northcliffe and Rockefeller or a sentimentalnovelist. But, I’d like to see you make it work with thetough babies I have to collect bills from!”

You may be right. Nothing will work in all cases - andnothing will work with all people. If you are satisfiedwith the results you are now getting, why change? If youare not satisfied, why not experiment?

At any rate, I think you will enjoy reading thistrue story told by James L. Thomas, a former student ofmine:

Six customers of a certain automobile company refusedto pay their bills for servicing. None of the customersprotested the entire bill, but each claimed that someone charge was wrong. In each case, the customer had signed for the work done, so the company knew it wasright - and said so. That was the first mistake.

Here are the steps the men in the credit departmenttook to collect these overdue bills. Do you suppose theysucceeded?

1. They called on each customer and told himbluntly that they had come to collect a bill that waslong past due.

2. They made it very plain that the company wasabsolutely and unconditionally right; therefore he,the customer, was absolutely and unconditionallywrong.

3. They intimated that they, the company, knewmore about automobiles than he could ever hope toknow. So what was the argument about?

4. Result: They argued.

Did any of these methods reconcile the customer andsettle the account? You can answer that one yourself.

At this stage of affairs, the credit manager was about toopen fire with a battery of legal talent, when fortunatelythe matter came to the attention of the general manager.The manager investigated these defaulting clients anddiscovered that they all had the reputation of payingtheir bills promptly, Something was wrong here - somethingwas drastically wrong about the method of collection.So he called in James L. Thomas and told him tocollect these “uncollectible” accounts.

Here, in his words, are the steps Mr. Thrrmastook:

1. My visit to each customer was likewise to collect a billlong past due - a bill that we knew was absolutely right.But I didn’t say a word about that. I explained I had calledto find out what it was the company had done, or failed todo.

2. I made it clear that, until I had heard the customer’sstory, I had no opinion to offer. I told him the company made no claims to being infallible.

3. I told him I was interested only in his car, and that heknew more about his car than anyone else in the world; thathe was the authority on the subject.

4. I let him talk, and I listened to him with all the interestand sympathy that he wanted - and had expected.

5. Finally, when the customer was in a reasonable mood,I put the whole thing up to his sense of fair play. I appealedto the nobler motives. “First,” I said, "I want you to knowI also feel this matter has been badly mishandled. You’vebeen inconvenienced and annoyed and irritated by one ofour representatives. That should never have happened. I’msorry and, as a representative of the company, I apologize.As I sat here and listened to your side of the story, I couldnot help being impressed by your fairness and patience.And now, because you are fair - minded and patient, I amgoing to ask you to do something for me. It’s something thatyou can do better than anyone else, something you knowmore about than anyone else. Here is your bill; I know it issafe for me to ask you to adjust it, just as you would do ifyou were the president of my company. I am going to leaveit all up to you. Whatever you say goes.”

Did he adjust the bill? He certainly did, and got quite akick out of it, The bills ranged from $150 to $400 - but didthe customer give himself the best of it? Yes, one of themdid! One of them refused to pay a penny of the disputedcharge; but the other five all gave the company the best ofit! And here’s the cream of the whole thing: we deliverednew cars to all six of these customers within the next twoyears!

“Experience has taught me,” says Mr. Thomas, "thatwhen no information can be secured about the customer,the only sound basis on which to proceed is to assumethat he or she is sincere, honest, truthful and willing andanxious to pay the charges, once convinced they are correct.To put it differently and perhaps mare clearly, peopleare honest and want to discharge their obligations.The exceptions to that rule are comparatively few, and Iam convinced that the individuals who are inclined tochisel will in most cases react favorably if you makethem feel that you consider them honest, upright and fair."

PRINCIPLE 10 Appeal to the nobler motives.

我的故乡是在米苏里州的一个小乡镇,附近有个「卡梅」镇,就是当年美国匪魁「奇斯

贾姆斯」的故乡,我曾经去过卡梅镇,奇斯的儿子还在那里。

他的妻子告诉我,当年奇斯如何抢劫银行、火车;然后把抢来的钱,布施给贫穷的邻居,让他们去赎回典押出去的田地。

在当时奇斯.贾姆斯的心目中,可能自以为他是个理想家--正如两代以后的苏尔滋,「双枪」克劳雷,和卡邦一样。事实确实是如此,凡你所见到的人--甚至你照镜子时所看到的那个人- 都会把自己看得很高尚,他对自己的估计,都希望是良好而不自私的。

银行家摩根,在他一篇分析的文稿中说:人会做一件事,都有两种理由存在……一种是好听的,一种是真实的。

人们会时常想到那个真实的理由,而我们都是自己内心的理想家,较喜欢想好听的动机。所以要改变一个人的意志,需要激发他高尚的动机O

那种方法,用在商业上是否理想? .让我们来看看。那是宾夕凡尼亚州,某家房屋公司的一位「弗利尔」先生的例子:弗利尔有一个不满意的房客,恫吓要搬离他的公寓,但这房客的租约,尚有四个月才期满,每个月的租金是五十五元,可是他却声称立即就要搬,不管租约那回事。

弗利尔请出这经过的时候,他说:「那个房客,已在这里住了一个冬季。我知道如果他们搬走了的话,在这个秋季前,这房子是不容易租出去的。我眼看二百二十元,就要从我口袋飞走了……真叫人焦急。

如果这件事发生在过去的话,我一定找那个房客,要他把租约重念一遍……并向他指出,如果现在搬走,那四个月的租金,仍须全部付清。

可是,这次我采取了另外一种办法,我开始向他这样说:「杜先生,我听说你准备搬家,可是我不相信那是真的。我从多方面的经验来推断,我看出你是一位说话有信用的人,而且我可以跟自己打赌,你就是这样的一个人。」

这房客静静的听着,没有作特殊的表示,我接着又说:「现在,我的建议是这样的,将你所决定的事,先暂时搁在一边,你不妨再考虑一下。从今天起,到下个月一日应缴房租前,如果你还是决定要搬的话,我会答应你,接受你的要求……」

我把话顿了顿,再接着说:「那时,我将承认自己的推断完全错误……不过,我还是相信,你是个讲话有信用的人,会遵守自己所立的合约。因为,到底我们是人,还是猴子,那就在我们自己的选择了。」

果然不出我所料,到了下个月这位先生自已来缴房租。他跟我说,这件事已跟他太太商量过,他们决定继续住下去。他们的结论是,最光荣的事,莫过于履行租约。

已故的诺司克力夫爵士看到一份报上,刊登出一张他不愿意刊登的相片,他就写了一封

信给那家报社的编辑。他那封情上没有这样说:「请勿再刊登我那张相片,我不喜欢那张相片。」他想激起高尚的动机,他知道每个人都敬爱自己的母亲,所以他在那封信上,换上另外一种口气说:「由于家母不喜欢那张相片,所以贵报以后请勿刊登出来。」

当约翰。洛克菲勒要阻止摄影记者拍他孩子的相片时,他也激起一个高尚的动机。他不说:「我不希望孩子的相片刊登出来。」他知道每一个人的内心,都有不愿意伤害孩子的潜在欲念。他换了个口气说:「诸位,我相信你们之中有很多都是孩子们的爸爸,如果让孩子们成了新闻人物,那并不是适宜的.

柯迪斯本来是梅恩州一个贫苦人家的孩子,后来成为星期六晚报,和妇女家庭杂志的负责人,赚了几百万元的钱。他创办之初,不能像别家的报纸、杂志一样,付出高价买稿子。他没有能力延聘国内第一流作家替他执笔撰稿,可是,他运用了人们高尚的动机。

例如,他会请「小妇人」名著的作家亚尔可德为他撰写稿子,且当时是她声望最高的时候。柯迪斯所使用的方法很突出!是一般人所没有想到的……他签了一张一百元的支票,他不是把支票给亚尔可德,而是捐助给她最喜欢的一个慈善机构。

或许有人会怀疑的说:「以这种手法,用在诺司克力夫、约翰.洛克菲勒,和富于情感的小说家身上,或许会有效……可是,朋友;你这种方法,用在我要收帐那些不可理喻的入身上,是不是一样有效?」

是的,这话很对,没有一样束西,能在任何情形下,产生同样的效果--没有一样东西,能在所有人身上都发生效力。如果你满意你现在所得到的结果,那又何必再改变呢?假如你认为不满意的话,那就不妨试验一下?

无论如何,我相信你会喜欢我从前一个学员汤姆斯,他所讲的一个真实故事:

某一家汽车公司,有六个顾客拒付一笔修理费的帐,他们并非不承认那个帐目,而是其中有些帐写错了。可是每一项租车,或是修理的帐单上,都有他们的亲笔签宇,所以公司认为这些帐是不会有错的。

下面是那家汽车公司信用部职员,去索款时所采取的步骤,你看他们是不是会成功?

一、他们拜访每一位顾客,并且坦白的对他们说,他们是公司派来索取积欠的帐款的。

二、他们很清楚的表示,公司方面绝不会弄错,所有的错误,都该是顾客负责的。

三、他们暗示,对于汽车方面的业务,显然公司要比顾客内行得多。所以,就不需要作那些无谓的争辩。

四、结果,他们争论起来。

采取这些方法,能使顾客们心甘情愿付出钱来?你不妨自已从那问题上,去找出答案来

事情闹到这种地步,那位汽车公司信用部主任,该派出一队「法律人才」去应付才是,幸亏这件事给总经理知道了。这位总经理,查看那几位欠帐主顾,过去付帐的记录,发现他们过去都是按时付款的。总经理发现到这项资料后,相信错处一定是出在公司方面--收帐的方法不对。所以,总经理把汤姆斯叫去,要他去收那些无法收到的「烂帐」。

这里是汤姆斯先生,所采取的步骤--

汤姆斯自己这样说:

「一、我去拜访每一位顾客,同样我也去索取一笔积欠很久的帐….可是,我对这些只字不提。我解释,我是来调查一下公司对顾客的服务情形。

二、我明白的表示,在尚未听完顾客所说的感想前,我不会发表任何意见。我告诉他们说,公司方面也不是绝对没有错误的。

三、我告诉他们,我只是关心他们的汽车;而他们对自己的汽车,相信比谁都了解,所以在这个问题上,先听从他们的意见。

四、我让他们尽量泄吐他们的意见,我静静听着,对他们表示十分的同情……当然,这也是他们所希望我如此的。

五、最后,那些顾客似乎心情缓和下来,我要他们把这件事公平的想一想,当然我想激发他们高尚的动机,所以我这样说:

「首先我要你知道,我也觉得这件事的处置并不适当,你已受到我们公司上次派来的代表的困扰、激怒,并且使你受到很多的不便。那是不应该发生的事,我感到很抱歉!我代表公司方面向你道歉。我听了你刚才所讲的话后,我不能不为你的忍耐和公平所感动。

就由于你的宽大胸襟,我才敢请你替我做点事情……这件事对你来讲,会比任何人做得更好、更合适。同时,你也比别人更清楚这儿是我给你开的帐单,请你细细查看一下,什么地方记错了,就像你是我们公司的总经理在查帐一样,我请你全权作主,你说怎么样就怎么样。」

他有没有把帐单看了?是的,当然他这样做了,而且显得十分高兴这些帐单的数目,由一百五十元,到四百元之间,款数大小不等。但顾客占到便宜了吗?是的,其中有一位顾客拒付这笔争执款项一分钱。可是另外那五位顾客,都让公司方面,占到了帐款上的便宜。这里是这件事最精采的地方在以后的两年中,那几位顾客,都买了本公司的新汽车。」

汤姆斯先生说:「经验告诉我,当你应付顾客不得要领时,最完善的办法,是在你心里要先有这样一个观点存在--你要当那位顾客是恳切、诚实、可靠的,且他是极愿意付帐的。一旦使他相信那帐目是对的,他会毫不迟疑的乐意债还。也就是说,人们都是诚实的,而且愿意履行他们该有的义务。

像这类情形,例外的很少,……我相信,如果真是有为难人的人,如果你使他感觉到,你认为他是那么的诚实、公道、正直,大多数时候,他也会给你有像你所给他的同样反应。」

所以,如果你要获得人们对你的同意的话,在一般情形上,遵守第十项规则,是一件很好的事,那是:

激发更高尚的动机。

 

标签:吸引力
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2011-01-24 13:21 编辑:kuaileyingyu
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