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人流的并发症及后遗症

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膀胱损伤如果人工流产过程中子宫穿孔的话,膀胱也会穿孔。这也会引起腹膜炎(一种被感染的腹部内层炎症),同时伴有疼痛、生命危险以及必要时的整形外科修复手术。
Bladder Injury
肠道损伤
If your uterus is perforated, your urinary bladder can be perforated, too. This can also cause peritonitis (an inflamed, infected lining of the abdomen) with all of its pain, dangers and necessary reparative surgery.
如果流产过程中子宫穿孔的话,肠道也可能会穿孔。这会引起恶心、呕吐、腹痛、发热、便血、腹膜炎(一种被感染的腹部内层炎症)以及如果治疗不及时引起的死亡。一部分肠段可能会被切除,腹部可能会留有临时或永久的结肠造口。(一种腹部外科手术,用来修复肠道)
Bowel Injury
乳腺癌
If your uterus is perforated, your intestines can be perforated, too. This will cause nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, fever, blood in stool, peritonitis (an inflamed, infected lining of the abdomen) and death if not treated quickly enough. A portion of the intestine may have to be taken out, and a temporary or permanent colostomy may be put in your abdomen.
有人工流产经历的女性老年后乳腺癌发病率明显高于没有人工流产过的女性。在美国自从1973年堕胎合法化后,乳腺癌发病率升高了50%。
Breast Cancer
异位妊娠(输卵管妊娠,宫外孕)
Women who have aborted have significantly higher rates of breast cancer later in life. Breast cancer has risen by 50% in America since abortion became legal in 1973.
异位妊娠是发生在子宫外的一种妊娠。在人工流产手术后,有8到20倍的可能性会异位妊娠。如果没有及时发现的话,异位妊娠破裂,如果没有紧急手术的话,会大出血导致死亡。数据统计显示,一次人流手术后异位妊娠的发病率会升高30%,两次以上人流手术后异位妊娠发病率会升高160%。在美国,堕胎合法化后异位妊娠的发病率升高了3倍。在1970年,发病率是千分之4.8,而到1980年时升高到千分之14.5。
Ectopic (Tubal) Pregnancy
对将来再怀孕的影响
An ectopic pregnancy is any pregnancy that occurs outside the uterus. After an abortion, you are 8 to 20 times more likely to have an ectopic pregnancy. If not discovered soon enough, an ectopic pregnancy ruptures, and you can bleed to death if you do not have emergency surgery. Statistics show a 30% increased risk of ectopic pregnancy after one abortion and a 160% increased risk of ectopic pregnancy after two or more abortions. There has been a threefold increase in ectopic pregnancies in the U.S. since abortion was legalized. In 1970, the incidence was 4.8 per 1,000 live births. By 1980 it was 14.5 per 1,000 births.
如果你经历过人工流产的话,
Effects on Future Pregnancies
u 你将有很大可能在将来怀孕的头三个月发生阴道流血。
If you have an abortion:
u 你将来怀孕可能不能正常分娩。
(1) You will be more likely to bleed in the first three months of future pregnancies.
u 你将来分娩时会更可能需要手取胎盘术,在娩出胎儿及胎盘时会更可能发生并发症。
(2) You will be less likely to have a normal delivery in future pregnancies.
u 你的下一个宝宝在生命头几个月发生死亡的几率将有2倍于常人。
(3) You will need more manual removal of placenta more often and there will be more complications with expelling the baby and its placenta.
u 你的下一个宝宝在1岁的最后一个月发生死亡的几率可能会有3到4倍于常人。
(4) Your next baby will be twice as likely to die in the first few months of life.
u 你的下一个宝宝可能会有低出生体重。
(5) Your next baby will be three to four times as likely to die in the last months of his first year of life.
u 你的下一个宝宝很可能会早产,伴有如上的危险以及需要承担昂贵的费用。
(6) Your next baby may have a low birth weight.
流产失败
(7) Your next baby is more likely to be born prematurely with all the dangerous and costly problems that entails.
妊娠时间少于6周的人流失败相对来说很平常。通常,流产者在从子宫中娩出胎盘时会失败。这意味着妊娠仍然继续,即使母亲已经承担了危险以及流产的费用。
Failed Abortion
出血
Failure to successfully abort the unborn younger than 6 weeks is relatively common. Sometimes, an abortionist fails to evacuate the placenta from the uterus. This means the pregnancy continues even though mother has endured the dangers and cost of an abortion.
1%-14%人工流产的女性由于大出血需要输血治疗。
Hemorrhage
肝炎
One to fourteen percent of women require a blood transfusion due to bleeding from an abortion.
如果人工流产后需要输血的话,可能会引起肝炎。
Hepatitis
感染
This can occur if you have to have a blood transfusion after an abortion.
人工流产后的感染会引起低热,有时会引起死亡。发生率在1/50到1/4之间。
Infection
子宫颈撕裂
Mild fever and sometimes death occurs when there is an infection from an abortion. This happens in anywhere from 1 in 4 women to 1 in 50 women.
在人流过程中大约有1/20的女性会发生宫颈撕裂。如果在下一次妊娠期间治疗不当会引起几乎100%的流产。流产过程中子宫颈损伤的高发病率,使下一次自然流产的发病率增加30%-40%。
Laceration of the Cervix
之后更多的流产
About 1 out of 20 women suffer this during an abortion. This causes you to have nearly a 50/50 chance of miscarrying in your next pregnancy if it is not treated properly during that pregnancy. A high incidence of cervical damage from the abortion procedure has raised the incidence of miscarriage 30-40% in women who have had abortions.
人工流产2到3次的女性在下一次妊娠头三个月自然流产的几率2倍于常人。在一次阴道流产后妊娠第二期(4个月到6个月)自然流产的概率增加了10倍。
More Miscarriages Later
子宫穿孔
Women who have had two or more abortions have twice as many first trimester miscarriages in later pregnancies. There is a ten-fold increase in the number of second trimester miscarriages in pregnancies that follow a vaginal abortion.
人工流产引起子宫穿孔的发病率在1/400-1/40之间。这几乎总是会引发腹膜炎,类似于阑尾破裂。
Perforation of the Uterus
前置胎盘
Women suffer a perforated uterus in between 1 out of 40 and 1 out of 400 abortions. This almost always causes peritonitis (an inflamed, infected lining of the abdomen), similar to having a ruptured appendix.
在女性人流后前置胎盘发生率会6-15倍于常人。在这种情况下,胎儿胎盘位于子宫的出口以至于胎盘会在胎儿娩出前就娩出。这会引发母亲大出血,胎儿几乎会死亡,除非你的产科医生识别出这种危险,在妊娠的合适时间采用剖宫产术取出胎儿。
Placenta Previa
人工流产综合征
Placenta previa occurs 6 to 15 times more often after a woman has had an abortion. In this condition your baby抯 placenta lies over the exit from the uterus so that the placenta has to be delivered before the baby can get out. This causes the mother to bleed severely while the baby almost always dies, unless your obstetrician recognizes this condition and removes the baby by Caesarean section at just the right time in the pregnancy.
通常在人工流产后,女性会有一些精神和心理的问题。包括重现人工流产经历的梦境,回避感情上的接触,人际交往问题,失眠,负罪感,短暂失忆,敌对感爆发,自杀念头或者自杀行动,抑郁,以及物质滥用。这些问题会持续及数天到数年。
Post-Abortion Syndrome
受孕产物滞留
Frequently after an abortion, women suffer a range of mental and psychological problems. These may include recurrent dreams of the abortion experience, avoidance of emotional attachment, relationship problems, sleep disturbances, guilt about surviving, memory impairment, hostile outbursts, suicidal thoughts or actions, depression, and substance abuse. These problems may occur days to years later.
如果医生将胎儿、胎盘、脐带、或羊膜的碎片滞留在你的身体里,你会发生疼痛、出血,或者低烧。除了抗生素治疗以及可能的住院治疗外,你可能需要额外的手术来移除这些残留的碎片。
Retained Products of Conception
Rh血型不相容
If your doctor leaves pieces of the baby, placenta, umbilical cord, or amniotic sac in your body, you may develop pain, bleeding, or a low grade fever. Besides antibiotics and possible hospitalization, you may require additional surgery to remove these remaining pieces.
如果你是Rh阴性血型的话,你的医生应该明确你的胎儿的Rh血型。以保护你和你的下一个宝宝不会有Rh血型不相容。Rh血型不相容会导致:
RH Incompatibility
l 将来的宝宝在出生后立即需要输血,
Your doctor should be sure of your baby抯 Rh blood type if you are Rh-negative, so that he can protect you and your next baby against future Rh incompatibilities. These Rh incompatibilities can:
l 由于Rh血型不相容将来的宝宝可能出生时死亡。
. require that future babies will need transfusions soon after birth,
l 由于Rh血型不相容将来的宝宝可能在出生后很快死亡。
. cause future babies to be born dead because of the incompatibilities,
l 在准备堕胎时,如果你的医生没有检查胎儿的血型,即使是在很早期8周以前,母婴溶血就会发生,如果你是Rh阴性血型的话,要提高警惕。
. cause future babies to die soon after birth because of the Rh incompatibility.
严重的快速大出血
If your doctor doesn抰 check the blood type of the baby you are going to abort, even in very early suction abortions done before eight weeks, fetal-maternal hemorrhage can occur, thereby sensitizing you if you are Rh-negative.
人工流产可能引起DIC(弥漫性血管内凝血)。这意味着你的血液不会凝固,你会控制不住地出血。DIC会严重地威胁人的生命,而且很难抢救。妊娠第二期(4个月到6个月)流产DIC发生率为千分之2。
Severe, Rapid Bleeding
不孕症
You may develop DIC (disseminated intravascular coagulopathy) from your abortion. This means your blood does not clot and you will bleed uncontrollably. DIC is extremely life threatening and difficult to treat. It occurs in 2 out of 1,000 second trimester abortions.
人工流产后可能引起不孕症。发生率在1/50-1/20之间。有过至少1次堕胎经历的女性,继发性不孕症的风险是没有堕胎经历的女性的3-4倍。
Sterility
没有识别的宫外孕
After an abortion you may become sterile. This happens in 1 out of 20 to 1 out of 50 women. The risk of secondary infertility among women with at least one abortion is 3 to 4 times greater than that among women who have not aborted.
你的医生可能尝试将胎儿流产但没有成功,因为胎儿发育在你的输卵管。不幸的是,之后的输卵管妊娠破裂需要紧急的急诊手术来挽救你的生命。所有在妊娠头3个月的女性都应该做超声波检查以确保没有发生异位妊娠。
Unrecognized Ectopic Pregnancy
低龄女性
Your doctor may try to abort the baby but be unsuccessful because it is developing in your fallopian tube. Unfortunately this tubal pregnancy ruptures later and emergency surgery must be done to save your life. All women in their first trimester should have an ultrasound to make sure they do not have an ectopic pregnancy.
年轻的青少年女孩堕胎的并发症比例会增加。然而,如果得到正确的照料,怀孕的低龄女性将来会比成年期女性有更好的生育能力。有证据显示,15-17岁的女孩,妊娠会比成年期女性在身体上更健康。
Young Women
“在医疗实践中,由于手术过程中关注不够,低估了人工流产带来的潜在危险。这些并发症大多是可以避免的,这已经是大家的共识。”
Complication rates of abortion increase with younger, teen-age women. However, younger women who carry their babies to term have better births than older women if they get proper care. There is evidence that in 15 to 17 year old women, pregnancy may even be physically healthier than in women of older ages.
- Dr. Warren Hern, 世界著名流产医疗专家
"In medical practice, there are few surgical procedures given so little attention and so underrated in its potential hazards as abortion. It is a commonly held view that complications are inevitable."
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2011-01-06 09:50 编辑:kuaileyingyu
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