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和西奥多•罗斯福一起狩猎!

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中国读者大多知道西奥多•罗斯福是美国历史上的一位总统,但可能少有人知道他酷爱狩猎。1909年3月,在完成第二个总统任期后不久,罗斯福就前往非洲探险。这次旅程引起了世界媒体的关注。随行团队中有多位科学家,他们捕获了11,397种动物,小到昆虫,大到河马和大象。他们甚至还捕到了珍贵的白犀。大量动物被制成标本后运往华盛顿;标本的数量巨大,光是装货就用了一年时间。罗斯福对这次科学考察非常兴奋,撰写了详细的日志。下面就让我们跟随罗斯福一起开始他的非洲狩猎之旅吧!

Despite riding on the crest of an unprecedented wave of popularity, Theodore Roosevelt declined to run again for the presidency in 1908. He anointed William Howard Taft, his close friend and Secretary of War as his successor. Taft easily won the election defeating William Jennings Bryan in his third and final attempt to gain the Oval Office.
虽然备受民众支持,西奥多•罗斯福却拒绝再次参加1908年的总统大选。他提名自己的好友、战争部长威廉•霍华德•塔夫脱为继任者。塔夫脱轻易地击败了第三次、也是最后一次参加竞选的威廉•詹宁斯•布赖恩,成功入主白宫的椭圆形办公室。

Immediately following Taft’s inauguration in 1909, Theodore Roosevelt set out for Africa to hunt big game and collect specimens for the Smithsonian Institution . His decision was based on his desire to leave the political stage to his successor and on his natural need for action.
1909年,在塔夫脱就职典礼后不久,西奥多•罗斯福就动身奔赴非洲,开始为史密森学会捕猎大型猎物和搜集标本。他之所以做出这个决定,一是因为他希望将政治舞台交给自己的继任者,二是出于自己好动的天性。

In April 1909, he landed in Mombasa with his son Kermit. Roosevelt, at the head of a safari including 250 porters and guides, trekked across British East Africa, into the Belgian Congo and back to the Nile ending in Khartoum. The ex-president thoroughly enjoyed himself. The expedition collected 1,100 specimens, including 500 big game. “The most noteworthy collection of big animals that has ever come out of Africa”, he exclaimed.
1909年4月,罗斯福和儿子克米特抵达蒙巴萨。他带领着有250名搬运工和导游的狩猎团,开始了艰苦的长途跋涉,从英属东非到比利时属刚果,然后沿着尼罗河,直到喀土穆。这位前总统非常享受这一切。他们的探险最终搜集了1,100个标本,其中包括500种大型猎物。罗斯福惊叹自己搜集到的“这些非洲出产的大型猎物是有史以来最出色的”。

Unfortunately for the animals, “collected” in those days was an euphemism for shot and killed. Between the two of them, Theodore and Kermit slew 512 beasts including 17 lion, 11 elephant and 20 rhinoceros. The remaining animals were no doubt happy to see Theodore Roosevelt leave the plain. After the year-long hunt, Roosevelt proceeded to England for the funeral of King Edward VII and then on to Norway to accept the Nobel Peace Prize for his part in ending the Russo-Japanese War. He returned to the U.S. in June, 1910.
不幸的是,对动物来说,在那个年代“搜集”只是射击和猎杀的委婉说法。单是罗斯福父子二人就屠杀了512只野兽,其中包括17只狮子、11头大象和20只犀牛。那些侥幸没被杀死的动物无疑会很高兴地看到西奥多•罗斯福离开了非洲大草原。经过长达一年的捕猎后,罗斯福前往英格兰参加英国国王爱德华七世的葬礼,然后到挪威接受他因在结束日俄战争中的贡献而被授予的诺贝尔和平奖。1910年6月他回到美国。

Bagging a charging rhino
围捕一只猛攻的犀牛
As Roosevelt stands over a freshly shot eland , a native guide approaches with the news of a rhinoceros sighted near by. Roosevelt follows the guide accompanied by Captain Arthur Slatter, an Englishman who runs an ostrich farm and an excellent hunter despite earlier losing his right hand.
罗斯福正站在一只刚刚射杀的大羚羊旁边,一名当地导游走上前来,给他带来了附近目击到犀牛的消息。罗斯福,还有亚瑟•斯拉特上尉,跟着导游过去了。斯拉特是一个英国人,经营着一家鸵鸟牧场。虽然他很早就失去了右手,但依然是一名出色的猎人。

“Slatter and I immediately rode in the direction given, following our wild-looking guide; the other gun-bearer trotting after us. In five minutes we had reached the opposite hillcrest, where the watcher stood, and he at once pointed out the rhino. The huge beast was standing in entirely open country, although there were a few scattered trees of no great size at some little distance from him. We left our horses in a dip of the ground and began the approach; I cannot say that we stalked him, for the approach was too easy. The wind blew from him to us, and a rhino’s eyesight is dull. Thirty yards from where he stood was a bush four or five feet high, and through the leaves, it shielded us from the vision of his small, piglike eyes as we advanced toward it, stooping and in single file, I leading. The big beast stood like an uncouth statue, his hide black in the sunlight; he seemed what he was, a monster surviving over from the world’s past, from the days when the beasts of the prime ran riot in their strength, before man grew so cunning of brain and hand as to master them. So little did he dream of our presence that when we were a hundred yards off he actually lay down.
“斯拉特和我立即跟着神色兴奋的导游朝既定的方向策马奔去。另外一名枪手在我们身后小跑。不到五分钟我们就到达了对面的山头,守望者正站在那里。他立即向我们指明了犀牛的位置。那头巨兽站在一片完全开阔的地带上,虽然离它不远处零星散落着几棵不大的树。我们将马留在地势较低的地方后,便开始慢慢向前靠拢。我不能说我们是在偷偷地接近它,因为我们很容易就靠了上去。风向是从犀牛往我们这边吹的,而且犀牛也视力不济。它所处的30码开外的地方有一丛四到五英尺高的灌木。灌木丛的叶子掩护着我们不被犀牛那像猪一样的小眼睛看到,此时我们正排成一支纵队弯着腰向前挪动,我在最前面。这只巨兽像座粗野的雕塑一般矗立着,阳光下它的兽皮呈现出漆黑色。它看起来像是古老世界里幸存的庞然怪物,就像是年轻力壮的野兽们凭力气到处撒野的那个时代所遗留下来的;还像是在人类的大脑变得发达、双手变得灵巧之前,还无法统治它们的那个年代残存下来的。它丝毫没有觉察到我们的存在,在我们离它仅有100码的时候,它竟然躺了下来。

“Walking lightly, and with every sense keyed up , we at last reached the bush, and I pushed forward the safety of the double-barreled Holland rifle which I was now to use for the first time on big game. As I stepped to one side of the bush so as to get a clear aim, with Slatter following, the rhino saw me and jumped to his feet with the agility of a polo pony. As he rose I put in the right barrel, the bullet going through both lungs. At the same moment he wheeled, the blood spouting from his nostrils, and galloped full on.
“我们蹑手蹑脚地走着,越来越兴奋紧张。我们终于来到一丛灌木前,我推动了双管荷兰步枪的保险栓,这是我第一次在捕获大型猎物时使用这种枪。为了更好地瞄准,我走到灌木丛的一侧,斯拉特紧跟在我身后。这时犀牛看到了我,它像一匹马球马一样敏捷地一跃而起。就在它起身的时候,我扣响了扳机,右枪管射出的子弹射进了它的双肺,同时,它一转身,血从鼻孔中喷涌而出。它以全速向我们疾驰而来。

“Before he could get quite all the way round in his headlong rush to reach us, I struck him with my left-hand barrel, the bullet entering between the neck and shoulder and piercing his heart. At the same instant Captain Slatter fired, his bullet entering the neck vertebrae. Ploughing up the ground with horn and feet, the great bull rhino, still head toward us, dropped just thirteen paces from where we stood.
但就在它一路横冲直撞地要奔向我们时,我的左枪管子弹击中了它脖颈与肩之间的部位,直穿其心脏。在同一瞬间,斯拉特上尉也开火了,他的子弹穿入了它的颈部椎骨。这头大犀牛用双角和四肢刨着地,它的头仍朝向我们,在离我们只有13步远的地方倒下了。

“This was a wicked charge, for the rhino meant mischief and came on with the utmost determination. ”
“这是一次凶猛的进攻。因为这头犀牛有害人之意,它下了最大的决心向我们发起进攻。”

Native warriors spear a lion
土著勇士矛刺雄狮
Roosevelt witnessed warriors of the Nandi tribe hunt and kill a lion. His description begins as the warriors encircle the big cat
罗斯福亲眼目睹了南迪部落的勇士们猎杀一头狮子的全过程。他的叙述从勇士们围捕那只大型猫科动物开始:

“One by one the spearmen came up, at a run, and gradually began to form a ring around the lion. Each, when he came near enough, crouched behind his shield, his spear in his right hand, his fierce, eager face peering over the shield rim. As man followed man, the lion rose to his feet. His mane bristled, his tail lashed, he held his head low, the upper lip now drooping over the jaws, now drawn up so as to show the gleam of the long fangs. He faced first one way and then another, and never ceased to utter his murderous grunting roars. It was a wild sight; the ring of spearmen, intent, silent, and in the centre the great man-killing beast, his thunderous wrath growing ever more dangerous.
“持矛猎人一个接一个地赶了上来,他们跑动着,逐渐开始围着那头狮子形成一个圆圈。每个人,在足够接近它的时候,都屈膝蹲在自己的盾牌后面,右手持矛,他们凶狠而热切的脸透过盾牌的边缘向外窥视着。就在他们一个挨一个地行动时,狮子站起身来。它的鬃毛耸立着,尾巴急速地甩动着;它低着头,原本垂下来遮盖那张大嘴的上唇现在已向上收起,以便露出它那些闪闪发光的尖牙。它看看这边,又看看那边,嘴里不停地发出呼噜噜的怒吼,凶恶残忍。那真是令人激动的一番景象:手持长矛的勇士围成一圈,专注沉默,而那头能致人于死地的巨型猛兽正处在包围圈的中心,它雷鸣般的怒吼越来越让人感到危险。

“At last the tense ring was complete, and the spearmen rose and closed in. The lion looked quickly from side to side, saw where the line was thinnest, and charged at his topmost speed. The crowded moment began. With shields held steady, and quivering spears poised, the men in front braced themselves for the rush and the shock; and from either hand the warriors sprang forward to take their foe in flank. Bounding ahead of his fellows, the leader reached throwing distance; the long spear flickered and plunged; as the lion felt the wound he half turned, and then flung himself on the man in front. The warrior threw his spear; it drove deep into the life, for entering at one shoulder it came out the opposite flank, near the thigh, a yard of steel through the great body.
“绷紧的圆圈终于合拢了,持矛勇士起身缩小包围圈。那头狮子快速地从一侧看向另一侧,试图找出包围圈最薄弱的环节,然后用自己最快的速度猛攻过去。混战开始了。勇士们握稳盾牌,悬举着抖动的长矛。前排的人已经准备好迎接猛烈的冲撞了;从两边包抄过来的勇士们则从侧翼攻击敌人。领头人跃到其他人前面,与狮子只有投掷距离那么远,(他的)长矛闪动飞舞着,刺来刺去;当狮子感到伤痛时,它半转过身来,紧接着,全力扑向最前面的那个人。领头的勇士掷出了他的长矛,长矛深深地刺入了那头活物的身体,从肩膀的一侧刺入,又从另一侧靠近大腿的部位叉出来,足足有一码长的钢矛横穿了它的巨型身躯。

“Rearing, the lion struck the man, bearing down the shield, his back arched; and for a moment he slaked his fury with fang and talon. But on the instant I saw another spear driven clear through his body from side to side; and as the lion turned again the bright spear blades darting toward him were flashes of white flame. The end had come. He seized another man, who stabbed him and wrenched loose. As he fell he gripped a spear head in his jaws with such tremendous force that he bent it double. Then the warriors were round and over him, stabbing and shouting, wild with furious exultation .
“狮子用后腿站起来,攻击那个人,它背部拱起,沉沉地压在盾牌上。刹那间,它用尖牙与利爪发泄着自己的愤怒。但说时迟那时快,我看见另一只长矛准确无误地刺穿了它的身体。正当狮子再次转过身时,明晃晃的矛锋如同白色火苗一般纷纷向它射来。战斗结束了。它又摁住了一名勇士,此人戳中了它并扭身逃脱。狮子倒下的时候,它的大嘴紧紧咬住了一个矛头,用力之大,都将其咬弯成两段。接着,勇士们围上来,一边猛刺一边大喊,他们因喧闹欢腾而变得激动不已。

“From the moment when he charged until his death I doubt whether ten seconds had elapsed , perhaps less; but what a ten seconds!”
“从狮子开始出击到死亡,我怀疑都没有十秒钟的时间,或许更少吧。但这是怎样的十秒钟啊!”

. safari: (尤指去非洲的)野外观兽(或游猎)旅行;Theodore Roosevelt: 西奥多•罗斯福(1858—1919),美国第26任总统。他的独特个性和改革主义政策,使其成为美国历史上最伟大的总统之一。罗斯福因成功调停日俄战争而获得1906年的诺贝尔和平奖,从而成为第一个获得此奖项的美国人。
. on the crest of a wave: 在最得意的时候,在事业的顶峰。
. anoint: 选定,指定;William Howard Taft: 威廉•霍华德•塔夫脱(1857—1930),美国第27任总统,共和党人,总统任内建立邮政储蓄体系,实行金元外交政策。
..William Jennings Bryan: 威廉•詹宁斯•布赖恩(1860—1925),美国政治家,国会议员,曾三次竞选总统,均告失败,后任国务卿,主张和平外交,因对第一次世界大战严守中立遭反对而辞职;the Oval Office: (美国白宫的)椭圆形办公室,总统办公室。
. Smithsonian Institution: 史密森学会,由英国化学家、矿物学家James Smithson捐款创建的研究机构,于1846年在美国华盛顿建立。
. Mombasa: 蒙巴萨,肯尼亚东南部港市,在蒙巴萨岛上。
. trek: (缓慢或艰难地)旅行,长途跋涉;Khartoum: 喀土穆,苏丹首都。
. euphemism: 委婉语,委婉说法。
. Edward VII: 爱德华七世(1841—1910),英国国王,1901年登上王位,是维多利亚女王之子,性喜交际,到欧洲各国旅游,促进相互了解,改善英法关系。
. bag: 猎获,捕获。
. eland: 大角斑羚,大羚羊(非洲最大的羚羊)。
. yard: 码,英美长度单位,1码=3英尺,合公制0.9144米;file: 成纵列的人(或动物)。
. run riot: 撒野,胡闹。
. key up: 使兴奋,使心情紧张。
. agility: 敏捷,灵活;polo pony: 马球马,一种为马球运动特殊饲养和训练的灵活的矮小马品种。
. wheel: 转弯,转变方向;spout: 喷出,喷射;gallop: 飞跑,疾驰;full on: 以最大能量(或容量)运转。
. wicked: 凶恶的,引起祸害(或伤害、麻烦)的;mischief: 祸害,伤害,危害;come on: 上前攻击。
. brace:(为困难或坏事)做准备,防备。flank: 侧翼,侧面。
. rear: (马等)用后腿直立起来;bear down: 沉重地压下去;talon: 爪;slake: 平息,满足。
. exultation: 狂喜,欢腾,欢跃。
. elapse: (时间)消逝,过去。

标签:罗斯福 西奥多
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2010-12-31 17:24 编辑:kuaileyingyu
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