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狼族

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狼以家庭为单位群居生活。一群狼通常由父狼、母狼和它们最近几年产下的幼崽组成。一般说来,狼一胎能产下四到六只幼崽。同一胎生的幼崽即被称作同窝出生者(litter mate)。它们的第一个小家是兽穴,即在地上刨出的坑或洞。兽穴必须足以容下狼妈妈和幼崽,供它们遮风挡雨,同时保护小崽们不受其他动物的伤害。有时狼会一直使用一个兽穴,但也可能每年建造新的。
Wolves live in family groups called packs. A pack is usually made up of a male parent, a female parent and their pups from the last few years. Usually, four to six pups are born together in a litter. The pups in a litter are called litter mates. Their first home is usually a den, which can be a small cave or a hole dug in the ground. It must be big enough to shelter the mother and pups from weather and protect the pups from other animals that may want to hurt them. Packs sometimes use the same den for several years, or they may find a new den each year.
狼宝宝在妈妈肚子里待上63天,就来到了这个世上。刚出生时它们只有一磅重(约0.453千克),眼睛也没睁开。幼崽们长得很快。出生10到14天后,它们就睁开了眼睛。两周大时,就可以摇摇晃晃地走路;再过一周,就会第一次离开兽穴。开始,幼崽只喝妈妈的奶,到了三周大时,它们开始吃肉。幼崽太小,不能捕猎,成年的狼用胃中半消化的肉喂它们。父母捕猎回来时,幼崽们就会去舔爸爸妈妈的嘴巴,父母狼就会把肉吐出来。这在我们看来很可怕,但是狼宝宝非常喜欢!它们一转眼就能吃光这些半消化的肉。任何一只不像兄弟姐妹一样争先恐后的幼崽只能得到较少的食物。如果幼崽没完没了地索要食物,成年狼就会发出低吼,警告它们老实一点。或者成年狼会直接离开兽穴,以免幼崽吃光它胃中的食物。
Pups grow inside their mother for about 63 days before they are born. At birth, they weigh only one pound, and their eyes are closed. Pups grow quickly. About 10 to 14 days after they are born, they open their eyes. By two weeks of age, the pups can waddle, and about a week after that, they may come out of the den for the first time. At first, they live only on milk from their mother. By three weeks of age, they start eating meat. Since pups are too young to hunt, adult wolves bring meat to them in their stomachs. The pups lick around the mouth of the adult when it returns from the hunt, and the food comes back up into the adult's mouth. This sounds terrible to us, but wolf pups love it! The pups eat the regurgitated meat within seconds. Any pup who is less aggressive than his or her brothers and sisters gets less food. If pups are too persistent in their begging for food, adult wolves may growl to warn them to stop. The adults may also leave the area in an attempt to avoid the pups.
狼群中所有的狼会互相帮助照顾幼崽。如果狼宝宝太小,狼群的其他成员会给狼妈妈带来食物,这样她就不用离开巢穴。等幼崽长大一点以后,群中成员轮流给幼崽打食、陪它们玩耍甚至给它们当保姆。一旦幼崽长到八周大,狼父母就离开巢穴,把幼狼带到狼群的集会地。在这个公共的地盘,狼群在一起睡觉、嬉戏、进食或者只是蹓跶。幼狼一直生活在这个集会地,直到它们能够和父母一同出猎。通常情况下,打猎时父母中的一方会留下来守着幼狼。
All the wolves in a pack help take care of the pups. When the pups are very small, other pack members bring food to the mother so she does not have to leave the den. When the pups are a little larger, pack members take turns bringing them food, playing with them and even baby-sitting. Once the pups are about eight weeks old, the adults leave the den and take the pups to a rendezvous site. In this open area, the wolves gather to sleep, play, eat and just hang out. Until the pups are old enough to go with the adults, they stay at the rendezvous site. Often, one of the adult wolves stays with the pups to watch over them.
幼狼喜欢玩耍。它们和同窝的伙伴,也和年长一些的兄弟姐妹一起玩,蹑手蹑脚地接近对方,然后猛扑上去。这类游戏让它们终生受益,因为这是今后潜伏和猎杀的演练,并且是在学习与群体成员的社会交际。幼狼还喜欢玩“玩具”,骨头啊,羽毛啊,或者死动物的皮。它们一遍又一遍地“猎杀”自己的玩具,并把它们当作猎物叼在嘴里,昂首阔步。等到它们再大一些,开始捕杀兔子之类的小型动物时,就会应用这些游戏中的技能。幼狼六个月大时,就会开始和群体中的其他成员一起捕猎更大的动物。
Wolf pups love to play. The pups will play with each other and their older brothers and sisters, stalking and pouncing on each other. This type of play will help them all their lives, as it is practice for stalking and killing prey and learning the social interactions of the pack. Pups will also play with "toys" like bones, feathers or the skins of dead animals. They "kill" the toys over and over again and carry them around as trophies. As they get larger, they will use the skills they learned from this play as they begin to hunt small animals, like rabbits. When pups are six months old, they will start hunting larger animals with the rest of the pack.
狼和人的家庭在那些方面不同呢?这两者的差异又有多大?
In what ways are wolf families like human families? How are they different?
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2010-12-29 23:44 编辑:kuaileyingyu
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