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为什么龙虾和螃蟹煮熟了就变红?

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今天我终于知道为什么螃蟹,龙虾,小龙虾以及其他的甲壳类动物会在烹饪的时候变成红色或者橘红色了。
Today I found out why crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, and some other crustaceans turn red/orange when cooked.
典型的甲壳类动物都会有一个蓝绿色到浅灰色过渡的外骨骼,有时会呈现出棕色或者橄榄绿色,有一点点红色在上面。也有些例外的,像蓝色和黄色的龙虾和螃蟹。外骨骼是由一些色素构成的,其中有一种类胡萝卜素叫做虾青素,它就是龙虾等呈现红色的原因。(鲑鱼也因为虾青素而呈现红色)
Typically, the exoskeleton of most crustaceans has a blue-green to grayish color and sometimes they appear a brown or olive green, with just a hint of red; with a few exceptions like the blue and yellow lobsters and crabs. The exoskeletons of such creatures are made up of several pigments, one of which is a carotenoid called astaxanthin, which provides it’s reddish coloring (astaxanthin is the same carotene that gives salmon its color).
在通常的温度下,当他们还活着的时候(也就是说,当你还没有把它们放入开水中或者把这些可怜的家伙放在烤架之前),虾青素是看不到的,因为它们被其他的蛋白链覆盖,所以呈现出来的是我们看到的蓝灰色或者褐绿色
At normal temperatures and when alive (in other words, when we’re not dumping them in boiling water or grilling the poor guys), the astaxanthin pigments are hidden because they are covered with other protein chains that give their shells the bluish-gray or brownish-green color we see.
高温破坏了蛋白质的外壳,然而类胡萝卜素和虾青素依然保持稳定状态。所有当你在烧螃蟹,龙虾或者它们的其他同类时,高温破坏了所有的素色唯有虾青素还留了下来,这样就导致了我们在烹饪的时候看到的很亮的红色的龙虾和螃蟹,或者橘红色的小龙虾。
Exposure to heat destroys this protein coating,while the carotenoid pigment, astaxanthin still remains stable. So when you cook a crab or lobster or it’s other tasty crustacean friends for that scrumptious meal you forgot to invite me for , the heat breaks down all the pigments except for astaxanthin; thus, causing the bright red color we see in cooked lobsters, crabs, and crayfish or the reddish-orange color of cooked shrimp.
你可能会想,那万中无一的蓝龙虾在烹饪时又会怎样?它会不会也变成红色?答案是肯定的。即使是3000万中之一概率的黄龙虾也是这样。(听起来有点搞笑这么稀缺的龙虾还拿来烹饪吗?)只有白化螃蟹和龙虾不会变色。很明显的原因就是它们没有虾青素,结果,就保持了它们的本色,白色。
Now you might be wondering, “What about the very rare, 1 in 2 million blue lobster? Does it turn red when cooked?” YES! Even the exceptionally rare 1 in 30 million yellow lobster turns red. (however, seems kinda silly to cook such a rare little guy). Only the albino crab and lobster do not turn red when cooked. For the obvious reason that they have no pigmentation and therefore, remain the same color even when cooked, white.
补充一下:
Bonus factoids:
1、据估计一千万只龙虾中只有一只是白化龙虾。2、龙虾的神经系统非常简单——不像昆虫。作为一个感知疼痛的器官,我们认为它们应该有一个更为复杂的神经系统。但是,神经生理学家告诉我们龙虾感知不到疼痛。3、一只体重一磅左右的龙虾大概已经活了七到八年了,而一个大家伙(超过八磅)可能已经活了20到50年了。龙虾是长寿的动物,一般认为它能活100多岁。4、每年,人类大概要吃掉150万吨的螃蟹。5、日本蜘蛛蟹是世界上最大的螃蟹,同样还有好几项世界纪录。它们生活在太平洋的深渊里,比任何螃蟹的栖息地都要深。它也是世界上寿命最长的螃蟹,因为能活过一个世纪而出名。
It’s estimated that 1 in 100 million lobsters are Albino. The nervous system of a lobster is very simple – not unlike that of an insect. For an organism to perceive pain, it is thought that it must have a more complex nervous system. Thus, neurophysiologists tell us that lobsters do not process pain. A one pound lobster would be about seven to eight years old, and a jumbo (over eight pounds) may be 20 to 50 years old! Lobsters are long-lived animals, and are thought to be capable of living over 100 years. Approximately 1.5 million tons of crabs are eaten by humans, every year. The Japanese Spider Crab, the biggest crab in the world, holds several other records too. It is thought to be able to live at depths greater than any other crab in the world; its natural habitats are usually the deepest abysses of the Pacific. It is also the longest-lived crab in the world; they are known to live for a well over a century.
标签:龙虾 螃蟹
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2010-12-13 13:06 编辑:kuaileyingyu
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  • 行者2010 说:

    非常棒的文章,我喜欢,像我要收录这类文段,我只好把它复制粘帖了?不能直接转帖啊?

    2010-12-14 18:56 回复 支持(0) 反对(0) 沙发
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