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简单生活习惯预防癌症

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Most cancers don't develop overnight or out of nowhere. Cancer is largely predictable, the end result of a decades-long process, but just a few simple changes in your daily life can significantly reduce your risk. Here are 31 great tips.
大部分癌组织并不是一夕之间无缘无故长出来的。癌症的形成在很高程度上是可预计的,是几十年的健康恶化过程的最终结果,但是,只要在你的日常生活中引入一些简单的小变化,就能惊人程度地减少你罹患癌症的风险。以下是31个很棒的建议。

1. Serve sauerkraut at your next picnic. A Finnish study found that the fermentation process involved in making sauerkraut produces several other cancer-fighting compounds, including ITCs, indoles, and sulforaphane. To reduce the sodium content, rinse canned or jarred sauerkraut before eating.
1. 吃一点泡菜。

一项芬兰的研究表明,在腌制泡菜过程中经历的发酵过程会产生好几种抗癌的成分,包括ITC(异硫氰酸酯),吲哚以及莱菔硫烷。但在吃泡菜前,别忘了好好冲洗它们,以减少摄入硫酸钠等成分。

2. Eat your fill of broccoli, but steam it rather than microwaving it. Broccoli is a cancer-preventing superfood, one you should eat frequently. But take note: A Spanish study found that microwaving broccoli destroys 97 percent of the vegetable's cancer-protective flavonoids. So steam it, eat it raw as a snack, or add it to soups and salads.
2. 如你所知的,多吃花菜(有的地方叫菜花)和西兰花,但是不要微波它们。

花菜是超强抗癌的食物,你应该经常吃它们。但要注意:一项西班牙的研究表明花菜经过微波会损失97%的抗癌成分。所以,你可以蒸花菜,生吃花菜,或者用来做汤做色拉,但千万别微波。

3. Toast some Brazil nuts and sprinkle over your salad. They're a rich form of selenium, a trace mineral that convinces cancer cells to commit suicide and helps cells repair their DNA. A Harvard study of more than 1,000 men with prostate cancer found those with the highest blood levels of selenium were 48 percent less likely to develop advanced disease over 13 years than men with the lowest levels. And a dramatic five-year study conducted at Cornell University and the University of Arizona showed that 200 micrograms of selenium daily -- the amount in two unshelled Brazil nuts -- resulted in 63 percent fewer prostate tumors, 58 percent fewer colorectal cancers, 46 percent fewer lung malignancies, and a 39 percent overall decrease in cancer deaths.
3. 多吃烤过的巴西果。

它们能提供丰富的硒,一种能让已形成的癌细胞灭亡并帮助细胞修复它们的DNA的微量元素。一项哈佛大学对1000多名前列腺癌症患者的研究发现,血液中硒的含量最高的那些人比那些硒含量低的人在未来13年中发展到晚期癌症的可能性要减少48%。康奈尔大学和亚利桑那大学的一项为时5年的研究表明,每天摄入200毫克的硒——等同于两个剥壳的巴西果所含分量——就能使得患前列腺癌的几率下降63%,直肠癌的几率下降58%,恶性肺肿瘤的几率下降46%,所有的致命癌症的几率下降39%。

4. Pop a calcium supplement with vitamin D. A study out of Dartmouth Medical School suggests that the supplements reduce colon polyps (a risk factor for colon cancer) in people susceptible to the growths.
4. 同时服用钙补充剂和维生素D。

达特茅斯医学院的一项研究认为,这样的补充剂减少结肠息肉(可能导致结肠癌的隐患)增大的可能性。

5. Add garlic to everything you eat. Garlic contains sulfur compounds that may stimulate the immune system's natural defenses against cancer, and may have the potential to reduce tumor growth. Studies suggest that garlic can reduce the incidence of stomach cancer by as much as a factor of 12!
5. 无论吃什么都放上点大蒜。

大蒜含有硫的成分,它们能促进身体免疫系统的天然抗癌能力,而且有降低肿瘤生长速度的能力。研究表明大蒜能使得患上胃癌的风险降低12倍!

6. Sauté two cloves of crushed garlic in 2 tablespoons of olive oil, then mix in a can of low-sodium, diced tomatoes. Stir gently until heated and serve over whole wheat pasta. We already mentioned the benefits of garlic. The lycopene in the tomatoes protects against colon, prostate, and bladder cancers; the olive oil helps your body absorb the lycopene; and the fiber-filled pasta reduces your risk of colon cancer. As for the benefits of all of these ingredients together: They taste great!
6. 一个健康食谱:在两茶勺的橄榄油中爆炒两瓣蒜的蒜末,然后倒入一个切碎的番茄。烹调好后作为调味汁浇在全麦意大利面上。

我们已经提到了大蒜的好处。西红柿里的番茄红素能帮助预防结肠癌,前列腺癌以及膀胱癌,橄榄油能帮助你的身体吸收番茄红素,而富含纤维的意大利面减少你的结肠癌风险。而且这份食谱吃起来也很美味!

7. Every week, buy a cantaloupe at the grocery store and cut it up after you put away your groceries. Store it in a container and eat several pieces every morning. Cantaloupe is a great source of carotenoids, plant chemicals shown to significantly reduce the risk of lung cancer.
7. 每周都买个哈密瓜,切好放在冰箱里,每天吃几片。

哈密瓜富含胡萝卜素,这种物质能大幅度减少肺癌的风险。

The Power of Antioxidants
抗氧化物的能量

8. Mix half a cup of blueberries into your morning cereal. Blueberries rank number one in terms of their antioxidant power. Antioxidants neutralize free radicals, which are unstable compounds that can damage cells and lead to diseases including cancer.
8. 在你的早餐麦片中,加入半杯蓝莓。

蓝莓是抗氧化能力最强的食物。抗氧化物能清除体内那些损坏细胞并导致包括癌症在内的一系列疾病的不稳定自由基。

9. Learn to eat artichokes tonight. Artichokes are a great source of silymarin, an antioxidant that may help prevent skin cancer.
9. 开始在食谱里增加百合。

百合富含水飞蓟素,这是一种可帮助防止皮肤癌的抗氧化物。

10. Coat barbecue food with a thick sauce. Grilling meat can create a variety of cancer-causing chemicals. But researchers from the American Institute for Cancer Research found that coating the meat with a thick marinade and thereby preventing direct contact with the charring flames reduced the amount of such chemicals created. Another tip: Precook your meat in the oven and then throw it on the grill to finish.
10. 烤肉的时候刷上厚厚的酱汁。

烤肉会产生很多种致癌的化学物质,但美国癌症研究学会的学者们发现如果烤肉的时候刷上厚厚的腌制酱汁,以使得肉和火焰不直接接触,能减少产生的致癌物质。另一个办法是,先在烤箱里预烤你的肉,然后再转移到烤肉架上去。

11. Every time you go to the bathroom, stop by the kitchen or water cooler for a glass of water. A major study published in The New England Journal of Medicine in 1996 found that men who drank six 8-ounce glasses of water every day slashed their risk of bladder cancer in half. Another study linked the amount of water women drank to their risk of colon cancer, with heavy water drinkers reducing their risk up to 45 percent.
11. 每次你去厕所回来时,别忘了喝杯水。

一项发表在1996年的新英格兰医学期刊上的重要研究结果表明,每天喝6杯240毫升的水的人,将膀胱癌的风险降低了一半。另一个研究发现了妇女们来说,喝大量的水能减少了45%的患癌风险。

12. Take up a tea habit. The healing powers of green tea have been valued in Asia for thousands of years. In the West, new research reveals that it protects against a variety of cancers as well as heart disease. Some scientists believe that a chemical in green tea called EGCG could be one of the most powerful anticancer compounds ever discovered.
12. 养成喝茶的习惯。

在亚洲,绿茶的治疗作用已经被几千年的历史证明了,在西方,新的研究表明茶能抗击多种癌症和心脏疾病。有些科学家相信,绿茶中的一种叫做EGCG的成分可能是目前世界上发现得抗癌能力最强的成分。

13. Have a beer tonight. Beer protects against the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, known to cause ulcers and possibly linked to stomach cancer. But don't overdo it. Drinking more than one or two alcoholic drinks a day may increase your risk of mouth, throat, esophageal, liver, and breast cancer.
13. 喝杯啤酒。

啤酒能抵抗幽门螺旋杆菌,它导致胃溃疡并很有可能与胃癌也有关系。但别过头了。如果一天喝超过一两杯的酒,可能会增加你的口腔癌,喉癌,食道癌,肝癌和乳癌的风险。

14. Throw some salmon on the grill tonight. Australian researchers found those who ate four or more servings of fish per week were nearly one-third less likely to develop the blood cancers. Other studies show a link between eating fatty fish (salmon, mackerel, halibut, sardines, and tuna, as well as shrimp and scallops) with a reduced risk of endometrial cancer in women. Ah, those amazing omega-3s at it again!
14. 吃点三文鱼。

澳大利亚的学者们研究发现每周吃4次或更多的鱼的人患血液癌症的可能性下降了1/3。其他研究发现吃富含脂肪的鱼(三文鱼,鲭鱼,金枪鱼,比目鱼,沙丁鱼以及大虾和扇贝)能让妇女减少患子宫内膜癌的几率。啊,那些神奇的omega-3(鱼油有效成分)啊!

15. Take a multivitamin every morning. Many studies suggest getting the ideal levels of vitamins and minerals can improve your immune system function and help prevent a variety of cancers.
15. 每天早上服用一粒多种维他命。

许多研究都表明摄入理想水平的维他命和矿物质能提高你的免疫系统功能并防止各种癌症。

16. Get about 15 minutes of sunlight on your skin each day. You've heard of the sunshine vitamin, vitamin D haven't you? Turns out we've been so good at heeding advice to slather on sun lotion and avoid the sun's rays that many of us aren't getting enough of this valuable nutrient. Researchers find that getting too little vitamin D may increase your risk of multiple cancers, including breast, colon, prostate, ovarian, and stomach, as well as osteoporosis, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, and high blood pressure.
16. 每天让阳光照射你的皮肤15分钟。

你听说过阳光维他命,维他命D,对吧?事实上,我们由于害怕光照的害处而在皮肤上严格涂抹防晒霜,导致我们中很多人获取这种宝贵的营养不足。研究者发现如果获取维他命D不足,会增加你患多种癌症,包括乳癌,结肠癌,前列腺癌,卵巢癌以及胃癌的风险,还可能增加骨质疏松,糖尿病,多种硬化症和高血压的风险。

The best source? Exposure to UVB rays found in natural and artificial sunlight. About 15 minutes a day ought to do it. Avoid overexposure, of course. That can increase your risk for cancers of the skin. You can also get vitamin D in your calcium supplement if you choose a supplement that contains both.
获取维他命D的最佳来源?来自自然和人造阳光中的UVB射线照射。每天大约15分钟就足够了,当然,要避免过度暴晒,以免罹患皮肤癌。你也可以选择服用一种包含钙和维他命D的双重补充剂。

17. Carry a shot glass in your beach bag. Then fill it with sunscreen and rub it all over your body. A shot glass holds about 1.5 ounces, which is how much sunscreen dermatologists estimate you need to protect yourself from the cancer-causing UV rays of the sun. Repeat every two hours.
17. 当你去海滩的时候,在全身涂上45毫升的防晒霜。

这是皮肤科医生计算出的你全身皮肤面积需要使用的防晒霜用量,这样的用量才能保护你免受导致皮肤癌变的UV射线的侵害。而且还要每两小时重复一次。

18. Cut a kiwifruit in half, then scoop out the flesh with a spoon. Now eat! Kiwi is a little hand grenade of cancer-fighting antioxidants, including vitamin C, vitamin E, lutein, and copper. You can also rub a couple of cut kiwifruit on a low-fat cut of meat as a tenderizer.
18. 把奇异果一切两半,用勺子吃果肉。

奇异果简直是一个你可以扔向癌症病变的小手榴弹,它富含维他命C,维他命E,叶黄素和铜。你也可以将奇异果肉涂到肉类上作为嫩肉剂。

19. Use a condom and stick to one partner. The more sexual partners a woman has, the greater her risk of contracting human papillomavirus, or HPV, which causes cervical cancer. Having an unfaithful husband also increases her risk.
19. 忠于性伴侣,每次性交都使用安全套。

一个女人拥有的性伴侣数量越多,她罹患性接触疾病,HPV的风险越高,也就更容易患上子宫颈癌。当然了,如果她忠贞,但她的老公在外拈花惹草,她的风险也会增大。(译者注:不公平啊。倒霉的妇女!)

20. Cut out high-fat animal protein. A Yale study found that women who ate the most animal protein had a 70 percent higher risk of developing non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, while those who ate diets high in saturated fat increased their risk 90 percent. So switch to low-fat or nonfat dairy, have poultry or fish instead of beef or pork, and use olive oil instead of butter.
20. 停止摄入高脂肪的动物蛋白质。

耶鲁大学的一项调查发现摄入动物脂肪最多的妇女患非何杰金脂肪瘤的风险增加了70%。而那些摄入饱和动物脂肪最多的妇女风险增加了90%。因此,改吃低脂或无脂的乳品,用鸡鸭鱼来代替牛肉或猪肉,并用橄榄油代替黄油。

All Together Now
大家一起来

21. Have your partner feed you grapes. They're great sources of resveratrol, the cancer-protecting compound found in wine, but don't have the alcohol of wine, which can increase the risk of breast cancer in women. Plus, the closeness such an activity engenders (we hope) strengthens your immune system.
21. 让你的另一半喂你吃葡萄吧。

它们富含白藜芦醇,也就是葡萄酒中所含的抗癌物质,但却不含葡萄酒中的酒精成分,酒精会增加妇女患乳癌的风险。此外,这种亲密的两性互动行为还会增强你的免疫系统。

22. Sprinkle scallions over your salad. A diet high in onions may reduce the risk of prostate cancer 50 percent. But the effects are strongest when they're eaten raw or lightly cooked. So try scallions, Vidalia onions, shallots, or chives for a milder taste.
22. 多吃大葱。

富含洋葱类食物的食谱会使得患前列腺癌的风险降低一半。但效果最好的烹饪方法是生吃或稍微烹饪。因此,尝试大葱,甜洋葱,小葱和韭黄,它们味道不那么冲。

23. Make a batch of fresh lemonade or limeade. A daily dose of citrus fruits may cut the risk of mouth, throat, and stomach cancers by half, Australian researchers found.
23. 榨一杯柠檬汁或柳橙汁。

澳大利亚的学者发现每天摄入柑橘类的水果能将患口腔癌,喉癌和胃癌的风险降低一半。

Unecessary Chemicals
有害的化学物质

24. Take a 30-minute walk every evening after dinner. That's all it takes to reduce your breast cancer risk, according to a study from the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle. Turns out that moderate exercise reduces levels of estrogen, a hormone that contributes to breast cancer. When 170 overweight, couch potato women ages 50-75 did some form of moderate exercise for about three hours a week, levels of circulating estrogen dropped significantly after three months. After a year, those who lost at least 2 percent of their body fat had even greater decreases in estrogen. Another study linked four hours a week of walking or hiking with cutting the risk of pancreatic cancer in half. The benefits are probably related to improved insulin metabolism due to the exercise.
24. 每天晚饭后,遛弯30分钟。

根据一项西雅图的Fred Hutchinson癌症研究中心的研究表明,这就是你为了抵抗乳癌需要做的。适当的运动降低雌激素水平,而雌激素会导致乳癌。170位超重的,50-75岁的“沙发土豆”妇女们在每周运动3小时,坚持3个月后,体内的雌激素水平大幅度下降。一年后,那些减去了至少2%的体重的妇女们的雌激素水平有了更大幅度的下降。另一个研究表明,每周4小时的步行或爬山能将胰腺癌的风险降低一半。这样的益处来源于运动带来的胰岛素新陈代谢改善。

25. Buy organic foods. They're grown without added pesticides or hormones, both of which can cause cellular damage that may eventually lead to cancer.
25. 购买有机食物。

它们是在不添加农药和荷尔蒙的环境下生长的。而这两者都会导致细胞损害,并逐渐导向癌症。

26. Learn to love dandelions. Using commercial pesticides on your lawn may increase your risk of cancer, since most contain pesticides such as 2,4-D (linked to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma) and MCPP (associated with soft-tissue cancers). Plus, pesticides used solely on lawns don't have to go through the same rigorous testing for long-term health effects as those used on food. And, as E/The Environmental Magazine noted in a 2004 article, no federal studies have assessed the safety of lawn-care chemicals in combination, the way most are sold.
26. 种植一些蒲公英。

蒲公英是天然驱虫剂。在你的花园里使用商用农药会增加你患癌症的风险,因为大部分农药都包含2,4-D(导致非何杰金淋巴瘤)以及MCPP(导致软组织癌)。此外,只用在草坪上的农药也不需要和那些用于食品的农药一样经历严格的测试。而且,像《环境》杂志在2004年刊登的一篇文章指出的那样,多种草坪护理农药同时使用的安全性的没有得到任何联邦研究的确认。但它们就是这样被出售的。

27. Buy clothes that don't need to be dry-cleaned. Many dry cleaners still use a chemical called perc (perchloroethylene), found to cause kidney and liver damage and cancer in animals repeatedly exposed through inhalation. Buying clothes that don't require dry cleaning, or hand washing them yourself, can reduce your exposure to this chemical. If you must dry-clean your clothes, take them out of the plastic bag and air them outside or in another room before wearing.
27. 别买那些需要干洗的衣物。

许多干洗店还在使用一种叫做四氯乙烯的化学物质,反复吸入它会导致肾脏和肝脏的损害以及癌变。如果你购买不需要干洗的衣物,或自己手洗它们,就能减少你和这种化学物质接触的机会。如果你必须干洗你的衣服,穿之前请把它们拿出塑料袋并在另一个房间通风。

28. Choose cucumbers over pickles, fresh salmon over lox. Studies find that smoked and pickled foods contain various carcinogens.
28. 吃新鲜的菜蔬鱼肉。

研究表明腌制熏制的食物包含多种潜在致癌物质。

29. Switch from french fries and potato chips to mashed potatoes and pretzels. A potential cancer-causing compound called acrylamide forms as a result of the chemical changes that occur in foods when they're baked, fried, or roasted. Not surprisingly, many foods with the greatest amounts of acrylamide are also some of the worst-for-you foods, such as french fries, potato chips, and baked sweets. Michael Jacobson, Ph.D., executive director of the Center for Science in the Public Interest, estimates acrylamide causes between 1,000 and 25,000 cancers per year. His agency has petitioned the Food and Drug Administration to set limits on the amount of acrylamide foods can contain. The FDA is studying the issue.
29. 别再吃炸薯条和薯片了。

吃土豆泥和脆饼干吧。当食物被烘烤煎炸时,它们会产生一种叫做丙烯酰胺的致癌化学物质。不难想见,那些含丙烯酰胺最多的食物也就是对你最不好的食物,例如薯条,薯片和烤甜点。公众利益科学中心的执行总监Michael Jacobson博士,估算丙烯酰胺每年导致了1000-25000例癌症。他的机构已经请求食物和药品管理局对食物允许包含的丙烯酰胺含量进行限制。食物药品管理局正在审理这个请求。

30. Go for a spray-on tan. They're available in most tanning salons these days and, unlike tanning beds, there's no evidence that they increase your risk of skin cancer.
30. 比起去海滩晒黑或者紫外线灯美黑,还是去做那种喷雾美黑吧。

现在几乎大部分沙龙都有这种服务提供,这种不会增加你患皮肤癌的风险。

31. Call up your bowling pal and hit the lanes. A study from the State University of New York at Stony Brook found that men with high levels of stress and those with less satisfying contacts with friends and family members had higher levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in their blood, a marker for the development of prostate cancer.
31. 叫上你的保龄球友去打一场球吧。

纽约州立大学Stony Brook分校的一项研究发现,男人如果压力更大,更缺乏与亲友的满意互动,那么血管中的PSA(前列腺特异抗原)水平就越高,因而也越容易得上前列腺癌。

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2010-11-29 14:31 编辑:kuaileyingyu
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