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人们为何从众?

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你大概还记得灵异妙探第一季第一集中这样一个情节:就为了和其他人保持一致,人们被迫怀疑自己良好的判断能力,对简单的问题却给出了错误的答案。现在,德纳基金审核的一项大脑研究进一步解释了人们从众的原因:和别人一致的感觉活跃了大脑产生愉悦感的区域。
Related Topics: Brain, cliques, conformity, Mental Health, neuroscience Tweet You may remember the experiment from Psych 101: the one in which people are compelled to doubt their own good judgment and give wrong answers to simple questions, just to go along with the rest of the group. Now, brain research reviewed by the Dana Foundation offers more insight into why people conform: the feeling of fitting in activates brain regions that spur pleasure.
研究员克里斯·弗里思和丹尼尔·坎贝尔-米克尔约翰在夏天发表了一篇研究论文。该研究发现,当人们对流行歌曲的评分高低与那两个“权威”一致时,人脑的回报区域异常活跃。
One study published this summer by researchers Chris Frith and Daniel Campbell-Meiklejohn found that people's reward regions lit up strongly when their ratings of pop songs agreed with those of two "experts."
“每个人对流行音乐都有自己的见解,”弗里思说,“而且我们还发现,当一个人在一首歌上与专家意见相同时,腹侧纹状体区域的反应会非常强烈。”
"Everyone has an opinion on pop music," says Frith. "And we found that activity in the ventral striatum was very high when the individuals and the experts agreed on a song."
他们的发现表明,与你分享的他人观点就是一种回报。“共享观点是一种回报,就像食物和金钱一样,”坎贝尔-米克尔约翰说,“而这足以影响行为。”
Their finding suggests that others' opinions, when shared with your own, are rewarding. "That shared opinion is a reward like food or money," says Campbell-Meiklejohn. "And it has the power to influence behavior."
这就可以解释为什么当你的观点被证实是正确的时候,你会有短暂的超满足感。毕竟,大体明确的是,你所想的和事实一致,或者无论如何,至少和你几乎全盘相信的权威一致
This could explain that small but extremely satisfactory sensation you feel when proven right — this, after all, is basically realizing that what you thought conforms with reality or at least with the expert view you most believe does so, anyway.
从众会带来愉悦感,这个论点使社会物种的进化讲得通了。毕竟,在你所紧依的小群体里拔尖,这个群体就不太能满足你所有的基本需求而使你继续生存。
The idea that conforming would bring pleasure makes evolutionary sense for a social species. After all, it probably doesn't often promote survival to stand out from others in a small, tight-knit group on which you depend to meet all your fundamental needs.
很明显,有时候,破除约定俗成的东西是必要且有益的。但是,促使个人克服超群的苦恼、甚至更愿意做叛逆者或局外人的决定因素难倒了心理学家们。
Obviously, there are times that bucking convention is necessary and beneficial. But determining what allows some individuals to overcome the discomfort of standing out — or even prefer being the rebel or the outsider — is much more challenging for psychologists.
弗里思和坎贝尔-米克尔约翰的长期研究成果揭示了此现象的生物基础:当你受同辈压力支配时,你会头脑不清醒。这时,即使你想拒绝毒品,你也会被迫接受毒品。
Frith and Campbell-Meiklejohn's work shows the biological underpinnings of a long-studied phenomenon: yielding to peer pressure gets you high, even when you aren't saying yes to drugs.
标签:从众
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2010-11-10 23:00 编辑:kuaileyingyu
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