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如果你不吃猫肉,为什么吃鸡肉?

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最近数以亿计的鸡蛋被召回,对于经常食用鸡蛋的大众来说,这无疑是个坏消息。令人没有想到的是,这样一来,鸡被推到了聚光灯下,全社会都在关注这些鸡肉的来源。
If you yelled for 8 years, 7 months and 6 days you would have produced enough sound energy to heat one cup of coffee.
由此产生的的后果就是漫天铺地的媒体报道。无论是黛安.索亚,还是艾米.古德曼的电视报道(译者注:这两位都是著名的电视记者),无论是纽约时报数篇评论还是CNN的简.米歇尔深度分析都让美国民众震惊,他们没有料到鸡在美国受到如此残忍的对待。
(Hardly seems worth it.)
因祸得福的是美国人因此认识到了鸡的遭遇。在美国的任何地方,数以百万计的鸡被关在十分拥挤的笼子里,拥挤得无法展开翅膀或者呼吸到新鲜空气。它们的一生就这样度过,直至死去。每一只鸡蛋都代表着34小时难以化解的痛楚。美国每年消耗九亿只鸡,消耗量相当于牛的两百倍,猪的一百倍。还没有计算其中有人终止吃红肉,改为吃鸡肉。这样算下来,实际被吃掉的鸡肉和鸡蛋的数量会更高,鸡所遭受的痛苦更深。
If you farted consistently for 6 years and 9 months, enough gas is produced to create the energy of an atomic bomb..
对于鸡养殖场的关注不可避免地会使一些人转为吃素。但是有一些人仍会继续鼓吹吃鸡肉和鸡蛋。几年前,就这一问题,我给纽约时报写了封信。信中,我指出:“道义上,一个人吃自己狗或猫的肉比起吃农场养的鸡或其它动物的肉站得住脚,因为狗或猫在被杀死之前,过着幸福的生活”。天啊,我可是收到了一些人愤怒的信件。即使我在信的结尾注明了我的立场,那就是禁止吃任何动物,但是有些人还真地认为我倾向于吃他们可爱的狗狗和猫猫。
(Now that’s more like it!)
数十年来,我一直在思考这个逻辑上自相矛盾的问题。为什么有人痛恨吃狗肉和猫肉,而同时对吃鸡肉,火鸡肉,猪肉或其它动物无动于衷?归根结底,所有的动物都是由血肉构成,和狗,猫没有差别。所有的动物都有相同的生理机能,那就是看,听,闻,尝和触。他们也感受得到痛苦,和狗猫没有差别。
The human heart creates enough pressure when it pumps out to the body to squirt blood 30 feet.
那么,到底出了什么问题?
(O.M.G.!)The recent recall of half a billion eggs has been bad news for the egg-consuming public. But it's been stellar for the birds. The recall has placed chickens -- and where they come from -- front and center in the national consciousness.
在巴尔的摩的街上,我做了一个小小的调查。我问了十个人他们吃鸡肉的原因。基本上有两个不同的答案。1)鸡肉比红肉健康,2)嗯,鸡没有宠物聪明。
As a result of all the media coverage surrounding the recall -- from Diane Sawyer to Amy Goodman to multiple stories in the New York Times to CNN's Jane Velez-Mitchell -- countless Americans have been shocked to discover just how hideously chickens are treated in this country.
他们的逻辑有问题,因为他们给出的理由都是错误的。
And that's a good thing for the birds, whose plight deserves to be better understood. At any given point in the U.S., hundreds of millions of chickens are crammed inside tiny cages, unable even to spread their wings or breathe fresh air. They live like this for their whole lives, each egg representing 34 hours of this unmitigated misery per bird. And Americans eat another 9 billion (yes billion) chickens annually; that's 200 times as many chickens as cattle, and almost 100 times as many chickens as pigs -- this means that anyone who "stops eating red meat" and replaces it with chicken or eggs is actually causing a LOT more suffering.
关于第一点,作为健康专家,凯西.福兰通放弃了吃红肉而改吃鸡肉。在她的一篇文章中,,她特别介绍到健康和环境的关系。她令人信服的表示鸡肉的消费对环境的破坏和牛肉猪肉一样糟糕。她把这称为”错误二分法”。
This new spotlight on chicken factory farms will surely create untold numbers of new vegetarians. But some people may still try to justify their meat and egg consumption. On that subject, a few years back, I wrote a letter to the New York Times, in which I noted that "eating your dogs or cats would be morally preferable [to eating chickens or other farmed animals], since they would have led a good life until you killed them." Boy did I get some angry mail; some people actually thought I was in favor of eating Fido and Fluffy, even though my letter ends with a clear entreaty to stop eating all animals.
关于第二点认为鸡没有宠物聪明。实际上,鸡的认知能力远远大于猫狗。一项研究用充分的证据表明了这一点。几周前,此研究成果荣获了澳大利亚博物馆颁发的年度“Eureka Prize”. 在这项研究中,澳大利亚农学院的权威研究人员发现鸡是“具有社会性和智慧的生物。它们的马基雅弗利主义的倾向性(Machiavellian tendencies) 使它们在说话时会根据听众的不同做出调整”。
I have wondered for decades about this curious lapse in logic: Why on earth do people who, to their credit, loathe cruelty to dogs and cats, think nothing of eating a chicken, turkey, pig, or other farmed animal? After all, these animals are made of flesh, blood, and bone--just like dogs and cats. They experience the exact same five physiological senses (i.e., they see, hear, smell, taste, and feel). And they feel pain -- just like dogs, cats, and we do.
根据澳大利亚博物馆发布的新闻,这项研究证实了“鸡不可思议地能够互相分享相当准确的诸如有关危险的位置或食物的的信息。它们一般通过声音的变化和形体视觉展示进行交流。
So what gives?
科学家们指出这种复杂的交流方式在非人类的动物中是第一例。尚未发现其他非人类动物包括灵长类动物具有此种具体详尽的交流方式。
I did a small survey, asking ten people on the streets of Baltimore why they eat chickens, and all ten offered some variation of 1) "chicken is healthier than red meat"; and 2) "well, chickens are not as smart as pets."
以下是一些有关证据:
The problem with their logic: It's just not true.
1. 动物行为杂志一项研究表明鸡“能够预测未来,具有自控力,这是一项之前只有人类和灵长类动物具备的特质”。科学家们注意到“鸡和人类一样,为了达到生存的目的,经过一系列令人惊叹的在智力方面的进化演变”。
On the first point, health and wellness savant Kathy Freston dealt with what she calls "the false dichotomy" of giving up red meat to eat more birds. In a piece that I hope you will read, she discusses, especially, the issues of health and the environment, arguing convincingly that chicken consumption is just as bad for you and the environment as consuming cattle and pigs.
2. 鸡能够通过观察同类包括通过看视频来学习。科学家做了这样一个实验。让一组鸡啄红色和绿色的按纽,啄数次后,就可以吃到食物。让另一组鸡在旁边观察这组鸡的行为。通过观察,这组鸡很快掌握了要领,吃到了食物。
And on the intelligence point: In fact, chickens have cognitive capacities that are beyond those of both dogs and cats, as was made abundantly clear in a study that, just a few weeks ago, won one of two Australian Museum "Eureka Prizes" for the year. In the study, researchers from the top Australian agricultural school found that chickens are "social, intelligent creatures complete with Machiavellian tendencies to adjust what they say according to who is listening."
3. 鸡似乎知道一些超越它们能力范围事情,太不可思议了。
According to the Australian Museum's press release, the study proves that "chickens can share remarkably precise information about the presence of predators and the discovery of food. They typically communicate using sound variations, postures and visual displays."
4. 莱斯利.罗杰是神经学和动物行为学专家。他在鸡的大脑和行为发展一文中指出,很明显,鸡在认识方面的能力已可以与哺乳动物,甚至和灵长类动物媲美。
The scientists point out that this method of sophisticated communication is a first with non-human animals. No animal behaviorist has found this type of detailed communication in any other non-human animal, including primates.
5. 克里斯.埃文斯是以上提到获Eureka奖的研究成果的作者。他介绍说:“我在大会上开了个小玩笑,在罗列一系列属性时,我故意省略了鸡这个主语。人们都认为我讲的是猴子”。
As just a few more examples (read more, and check out all the citations, here):
科罗拉罗州立大学著名教授伯纳德。罗林博士总结说:“鸡有复杂的行为,善于学习,社会结构丰富,及变化多样的语言库。任何曾在农庄里养过鸡的人都可以辨认出每只鸡突出的,不同的性格”。
According to a study in the journal Animal Behavior, chickens "can anticipate the future and demonstrate self-control, something previously attributed only to humans and other primates." The scientists note that "like humans, chickens evolved an impressive level of intelligence to help improve their survival."
正如罗林博士所讲,任何和鸡接触过的人都能分辨出哪些鸡合群勇敢,哪些鸡害羞和警觉,哪些鸡与人亲近,哪些鸡落落寡合,胆小或者盛气凌人。鸡和狗,猫,人类一样,每只鸡都是独立的个体。
Chickens can learn from watching the actions of other chickens (including on a video, which you can watch in the video "Stimulus Response"). In another experiment, a scientist taught a group of chickens to peck red and green buttons a certain number of times to obtain a food reward. When a new group of chickens watched those who had learned how to push the buttons for food, the new chickens quickly caught on by watching the others.
出于一些原因,我们不会想到去吃猫肉狗肉,因为在我们心中,它们是无法取代的个体。那么我们也不应该吃鸡肉,猪肉或其他一些动物。
Chickens know that something they can't see still exists -- something that is "beyond the capacity of small children."
标签:猫肉 鸡肉
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2010-11-05 22:17 编辑:kuaileyingyu
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