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爱上演讲

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Toastmaster:Toast 是“举杯祝贺”,Master 是“主人”,所以可将 Toastmaster 解释为‘会议主持人’。 Toastmasters International 自1924 年于美国加州成立,为一个非营利事业组织于全球 70 多个国家拥有将近 1.2 万个会员组织。其成立的原因是基于帮助他人如何学习说话、倾听与思考,培养学员领导、表达能力的国际性组织。

很多人对于公众演讲都有与生俱来的恐惧感,这种感觉让他们不敢勇敢站起来发表自己的观点,也让他们总是甘于现状。无论他们的工作或者当下情况有多窘迫,都不敢跨越“雷池”一步。

Actor George Jessel said, “The human brain starts working the moment you’re born and never stops until you stand up to speak in public.” Though you might think you could never do what those clever, inspirational speakers do, you can teach yourself enough about public speaking to untie the tethers that hold you back.
演员乔治·约瑟说过:“人脑从出生的那刻起就开始辛勤工作,从未停止;但要你当着大家的面站起来讲话的时候,它却会一片空白。”你可能觉得你不可能达到那些演讲大师的水平,他们不但字字珠玑、聪明睿智,而且感染力十足。但你绝对能够自学成才,打破公众演讲的枷锁,迈上一个新的层次。

Public speaking is a learned skill, developed much like other skills, such as playing the piano or painting: over time, with practice and some guidance. However, because of fear, we often avoid learning opportunities, choosing to flee rather than confront the challenge.
公众演讲是一种可以后天习得的技巧,就像弹钢琴或画画那样,可以通过训练学得。当然,这需要一定时间,也需要不断的练习以及行家的指导。但是,因为对其有着天生的恐惧,我们往往会错失一些学习和练习的机会,选择逃避而不是直面挑战。

I understand this. Avoidance was my modus operandi.
这我能理解。因为以前,逃避也是我惯用的伎俩。

When I was in college, I manipulated my class schedule to avoid public speaking encounters. The one mandatory speech class became an exercise in rote memorization.
在我上大学的时候,我特意不去选那些可能需要进行公众演讲的课程。唯一的一次强制演讲也成了机械背诵练习。

I practiced my first speech so much I could say the words automaton-like, as if I had turned into a robot while walking to the front of the classroom. I was so nervous giving that first speech that when I finished, I did not remember actually saying the words.
对于这第一次的演讲,我事先早已将内容背得滚瓜烂熟,当天就好像一个机器人走上讲台说话一样。我结束演讲之后还是紧张的不能自已,甚至都记不清到底说了什么。

As they spilled from my mouth, it was as close to an out-of-body experience I hope to ever have. I survived that speech – you will too – graduated and started my career, a promising job in finance.
当我把话一字一句说出来的时候,就像是在经历一场九死一生的痛苦征程一样。但结果是,我成功做完了这第一场演讲,顺利毕业并进入了金融业,开始了我光明的职业发展轨迹。我相信每个人都可以做到,你也可以。

Still, I avoided public speaking. As a management trainee in a large company, I often found myself around the conference table among a group of unfamiliar faces. When it came time to simply introduce ourselves around the room,I would start to sweat. It sounds so straightforward, so simple: “I’m so and so.” Why was it so hard to speak up?
开始工作后,我还是不断地回避着公众演讲。作为一家大企业的管理培训生,我经常会坐在硕大的会议桌上,周围被陌生脸孔包围着。当大家开始依次作自我介绍的时候,我就会开始浑身冒汗。听上去要讲的东西一点都不绕弯,无非是:“我叫……,我是谁谁谁”之类的。我就纳闷了,为什么我觉得当众讲话会这么难呢?

As it turns out, I was not the only one around that table sweating. A Gallup Poll survey showed that 40 percent of U.S. respondents fear speaking in front of an audience. Specific physiological symptoms accompany this feeling of anxiety: sweating, shaking knees and hands, quivering voice, flushing, rapid heartbeat and nausea.
后来我发现,我并不是唯一一个碰到演讲就会冒汗的人。一项盖洛普民意测验显示,40%美国的调查对象害怕在众人面前说话。伴随着这种焦虑感,身体上就会反应出一系列特殊的症状,比如盗汗,膝盖和手会不由自主的抖动,声音颤抖,脸红,心跳加速以及恶心等。

Though I didn’t feel so at the time, I was lucky when, as part of my job training, I was “strongly encouraged” to join a Toastmasters club, something I would never have done on my own. My first speech served to open my mouth and, more important, it helped to open my eyes. In what seemed to be a lifetime of a five-minute speech, I said “ah” or “um” 33 times. You may find that hard to believe, as I did, but the most astonishing part was that
在培训期间,公司强烈建议我参加Toastmaster俱乐部,后来一想,我真是交了好运,如果不是公司的关系,我估计这辈子都不会主动去参加这一改变人生的活动。我在Toastmaster的第一次演讲上,我终于大胆地张开了嘴,而更加重要的是,这次演讲帮助我打开了眼界。在这个“漫长如一生”的五分钟演讲中,我竟然说了33次“啊”或“恩”。你可能会觉得这难以置信,但更加令人吃惊的是,我一个都没有听到。

I myself had not heard a single one of them.
Today, many years and speeches later, seldom uttering an “er” or “ah,” I can laugh while I still cringe at that long-ago memory. Although I still get nervous – yes, every time – I have learned to control those butterflies, just as you can.
而多年之后的今天,经历了大大小小无数次演讲的我,已经很少说“啊”和“呃”这样的停顿词了,但是想想多年前的第一次经历还是会大笑不止。虽然现在的我还是会紧张(没错,每次都会紧张),但我已经学会如何控制住这种情绪了。我相信你也可以。

As Walter Cronkite said, “It’s natural to have butterflies. The secret is to get them to fly in formation.” Here’s how:
沃尔特·克朗凯特说过:“是人都会紧张得心里直打鼓,秘诀是如何克服紧张,让心里的小鼓打的有节奏。”接下来就是公众演讲的秘诀:

Before Speech Day
演讲日之前

Preparation goes a long way to ease those pre-speech jitters. Just as you would not expect a large wedding to happen without proper planning and organizing, a good speech needs attention far ahead of the day of the event.
如果你要防止演讲前过于紧张的话,早作准备无意识最有用的。如果一个婚礼没有好好的计划和组织,你不会期待它办的盛大隆重而又顺利成功。同样道理,如果你要做一次成功的演讲,提前多日精心准备是必须的。

Start early.
准备工作尽早开始

As soon as you know you have to give a presentation, start working on it. This is no time for procrastination. Think about your message. Get ideas down on paper, even if it is only a rough draft.
从你得知要做演讲的那一刻起就开始准备吧。千万不能拖。想一想你的主题,把想说的东西写下来,即便它可能只是一个草稿而已。

If it’s easier, start with an outline.
如果想写的简单一点,就先做一份提纲出来。

– Always look for subject matter
找一个演讲主题

– major ideas that you can develop into a speech and minor ones that fit into a larger theme. Notice details. Notice life and circumstances around
you. For example, photographer Ron Tarver was covering New York’s African-American Day Parade. He wrote about how, while he was stuck in traffic, a woman turned to him and simply asked, “Are there really black cowboys?” Tarver wrote, “From that point on, I had a story to tell.”
先产生可以发展成为演讲主题的大想法,然后再将小的想法贯彻到大的主题当中。注意细节,特别要注意你周围的生活和环境细节。打个比方,摄影师荣恩·塔沃曾发文说,他有一次在报道纽约国庆阅兵的时候被堵在了路上,一位女士转过来就问他:“真有黑人牛仔吗?”塔沃写道:“那一刻起,我就有一个小故事可以写了。”

Choose a subject you care about
选择一个你真正关心的主题

that is personal to you but has a universal theme. Personal stories can carry a powerful but common message. A breast cancer survivor told of her experience in a speech to co-workers. She emphasized not only the medical aspects of the disease but, more helpful to the audience, what friends and
你选的主题要和你息息相关,同时它也要是一个大家都比较熟悉或者接触过的东西。亲身经历的故事传达的信息不但强有力而且可以引起共鸣。

family could do to help, such as cook a meal or offer a ride to someone recently diagnosed with cancer.
一个战胜乳腺癌的患者在将自己患病经历介绍给同事听的时候,主要侧重点并不是这种疾病的医学知识,而更多的是放在朋友和家人能够如何帮助癌症患者,比如为他们烧饭或者载他们去上班等等。

Even if you cannot choose the topic, personalize it.
即使题目是已定的无法选择,你也要尽量把它与个人经历相结合。

Make your speech interesting to you and chances are it will be interesting to your audience as well. Say you are giving a financial report; compare the net income to how many Hawaii vacations you could buy with the
把你的演讲准备得吸引人一点,至少对你来说要有趣,这样别人才会感兴趣。假设你现在要做一个金融报道,你完全可以把净收入数据用另一种方式表达出来,比如说用所赚的钱可以去夏威夷度假多少次。

money earned.
Organize your speech in a logical sequence,
将演讲结构组织得富有逻辑线索

such as following a time line. Not only will you be able to remember it better, the audience will be able to follow it easier. Having a logical path to follow will help alleviate the fear of forgetting your speech. Researchers at the University of Manitoba found that of respondents who reported excessive anxiety when speaking to crowds, 74 percent shared the fear of “going blank.”
要使你的演讲富有逻辑,你有很多方法可以选择,比如根据时间节点来进行前后串联。有了主线之后,不光你自己可以更好地记住要说的内容,而且听众也能更容易跟上你的思路。有了一个清晰地逻辑路径可以帮助你减缓忘词的恐惧感。马尼托巴大学的研究结果显示,在所有对公众演讲过度焦虑紧张的人当中,有74%的人害怕演讲时“大脑一片空白”。

Write your speech like every great speech,
分为开头、主体和结尾三部分

with a beginning, middle and an end. Grab attention with the opening: a thoughtful question, a relevant anecdote, an appropriate quotation or a challenging statement.
所有成功的演讲都由这三大部分组成。开头的话,首先要吸引大家的注意力,可以提出一个发人深省的问题,讲述一个相关的趣闻轶事,引用一段合适的名人名言或者提出一个富有挑战性的论点等等。

Transition smoothly into the meat of your subject, giving information in a clear, understandable format. End your speech with a powerful closing: a summary and conclusion, an appeal for action, or a relevant question, story or quote.
通过开头,你要慢慢地过渡到演讲的主题,用清晰明了且容易理解的方式,娓娓道来。最后的结尾一定要有力,方法不一而足,可以进行总结陈述,呼吁某种行为,或者提出相关问题,讲述故事,或者引用等等。

Rehearse.
预演

Once you have that great speech written, the three Ps are invaluable: practice, practice, practice. There is no substitute for hearing your own voice say the words out loud. Do it often: in the shower, in front of the mirror, in the car stopped at a red light.
一旦你写好了说稿,最有用的无疑是三个词:练习、练习、再练习。自己说自己听是最好的、无可替代的方式。频繁地练习吧:洗澡的时候练习,照镜子的时候练习,车停在路口等红灯的时候也可以张嘴说说。

In her lighthearted article, “Blinking in the Spotlight,” Rachel Brem, a postdoctoral fellow at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, writes about how many times she practiced a presentation she gave to colleagues at a symposium. She practiced at home, she practiced at work in front of her boss, she practiced at the hotel the night before the talk, making “eye contact with the empty sofa.”
美国西雅图一家癌症研究中心博士后瑞秋·布雷姆在她的名为《聚光灯中眨眼》的文章中这样写道:她在研讨会上作发言之前练习了无数次;她在家里一个人的时候练习,在工作上司面前练习,在演讲前一天宾馆里也没有停过。她甚至还对着空无一人的沙发练习“眼神交流”。

Visualize success.
想像一下演讲成功的场景

You can use low-tech means of visualization by simply closing your eyes. Picture yourself in front of your audience giving your speech to resounding applause. Or go high-tech with the latest sophisticated virtual reality (VR) computer programs. Some VR software is specifically designed for anyone who struggles with public speaking – even those who stutter.
最方便、不需要高科技的方法就是闭上眼睛,想象一下面前的观众听了你的演讲内容后持续不断地鼓掌。说到另一种高科技手法,你可以用一下最新版本的模拟现实(VR)电脑程序。有些VR程序是特别为那些弱于公众演讲的人设计的——甚至还有专为结巴的人设计的程序。

At George Washington University’s Speech and Hearing Science Department, assistant professor Shelley Brundage, using software designed by Virtually Better, Inc. in Decatur,Georgia, researches the benefits of using VR. She explains, “A computer is connected by a video cable to a headset currently about the size of a football helmet. Newer headsets are smaller, about the size of a camping-style headlamp – which allows images to be seen.”
乔治·华盛顿大学演讲与听力科学系的副教授舍利·布隆达运用佐治亚州Virtually Better公司的软件对使用VR软件的益处做了调查。她解释道:“现在连着电脑的耳机大小和橄榄球差不多,以后的更新款应该可以进一步缩小到帽头灯这么小,这样的话,视觉效果会更好。”

These 3-D images, complete with realistic sounds, can be programmed to be a “nice” audience – heads nodding, paying attention, making eye contact or a more challenging audience – inattentive, cell phones ringing, people
这些三维影像再加上仿真的声效,可以模仿出“好”的听众,视频上会有点头、认真倾听、眼神交流;也可以模仿出富有挑战的听众,模拟的人们心不在焉,电话时不时会响起,甚至会有人走来走去。

walking out. Participants see a virtual lectern in front of them, complete with their own notes. Looking around behind them, they can refer to their own PowerPoint presentation. Dr. Brundage says the main benefit of VR soft-
在这个系统中,使用者可以看到面前摆放着一个仿真的小讲台,讲台上放着自己的笔记。一转头还能看得到自己制作的PPT。布隆达博士说,VR软件最大的好处就在于“它让你在一个安全的环境下进行练习,一切尽在掌握中。你随时可以把系统关掉停止练习,模拟听众不会找茬。”

ware is that “it allows for practice in a controlled and safe environment. A virtual audience tells no tales. You can turn it off and it’s done.”
Discuss equipment needs with the event organizer
与活动主办方讨论设备需求

and make sure any necessary equipment is available. Reconfirm. If you rely on slides or computer-generated images, have a back-up plan. Know beforehand what you will do if equipment fails.
确认一下所需的设备都可用,反复确认。如果你依靠幻灯片或者要用电脑展示图片的话,一定要有一个备选方案。一定要事先想好,如果设备不能用的话怎么办。

Familiarize yourself with the setting.
熟悉演讲环境

If you can, physically visit the site beforehand. This will help you visualize your success. Know the layout of the room, stand on the podium, test the microphone. The more familiar the environment is the day of your speech, the better.
如果可以的话,在演讲之前去一下现场,这么做可以帮助你想象一下演讲成功的场景。到了现场之后,了解一下场地的布局,在讲台上站一站,测试一下麦克风。你对于演讲环境越熟悉越好。

The Big Day
演讲当天

Wear clothes that help.
穿着得体

Choose clothing that is comfortable and professional-looking. In Interpersonal Communication: Survey and Studies, D.C. Barnlund (1968) says, “Personal apparel is a major source of information about the identity and character of others.” He continues, “It seems plausible that clothing may affect self-attitudes as much or more than observer attitudes.”
挑选舒适且职业性较强的衣服,1968年的人际交往调查研究表明:一个人的外表是表明自己身份和特性的主要来源,穿衣的品位不仅会影响自己的信心,更会影响别人对你的态度。

Feel good about how you look so when those eyes are on you, you can be
sure that nothing takes away from your message.
你要对自己的外表感觉舒服,要确信别人直视你的时候,你不会因为自己的外表而分心,进而无法传递正确信息

Arrive early.
早点到

Build in leeway for delays. Assume there will be road construction, transportation delays, parking problems.
要预留一些时间比防不测,比如道路整修,堵车或者停车难等问题等等。

Look outward, not inward.
乐观一点

Concentrate on the message. Remember how important it is for this audience to hear what you have to say. Replace every negative thought with a positive one. For instance, when you tell yourself you cannot do this, replace it with, “I can try my best. This is an opportunity for me to learn
专注于你要传递的信息,时刻牢记,最重要的是观众要听你说的话。把每一个消极的思想用积极的想法替换掉,比如当你打退堂鼓的时候,你可以鼓励自己说“我能努力做到最好,这也是一个让我学习的好机会。”

something new.”
If appropriate, prepare an introduction for the emcee to introduce you. Give your pertinent biographical information to ensure the introduction gives a good lead-in to the content and tone of your speech. The introduction should give at least four pieces of information: what is the topic, why this subject, who is speaking, and why this speaker.
如果方便的话,准备一篇介绍自己的短文给主持人,在短文里要包含相关的个人信息以保证这篇介绍可以很好的引入演讲的内容和基调。介绍词应至少包含四方面的信息:主题是什么;为何选这一主题;主讲人是谁;为何由他主讲。

For example, “Public speaking is an important topic in today’s business world. Today, we have a long-time believer in the fact that everyone can learn to speak well in public. She has a Master’s degree in communication from the University of Hawaii and has given numerous seminars on public speaking. She is here today to give us some pointers on our own presentation skills. Please welcome, Cheri Orator.”
举个例子,介绍词可以像这样写:“在当下的商业世界里,公众演讲是一个至关重要的课题。我们一直以来都坚信,每个人都能够成为一个很好的公众演讲者。今天的主讲人是夏威夷大学传播学硕士,她已经针对公众演讲的主题作了无数次的研讨会发言。今天我们有幸请她来到现场与我们交流一些演讲的技巧。她就是Cheri Orator,大家欢迎!”

Relieve tension.
缓解紧张情绪

When you get to the location, after checking the room, find a quiet place to gather your thoughts and relax. The less outside stimuli, the easier it is for you to focus on your message. If it is not possible to isolate yourself for a few minutes, regroup mentally wherever you are, even in a crowd, and gather your energy. While you wait to give your speech, do these simple exercises.
你到达现场察看了演讲厅之后,找一个安静的地方,在那里理一遍自己的思路,尽量放松。外界刺激越少,你就越是容易集中于自己要传递的信息。如果无法将自己与外界隔离几分钟的话,即使在人群中,尽量从思想上重新聚焦到演讲内容上,汇聚自己的小宇宙。在你准备演讲之前等待的时候,可以尝试做以下几个小练习。

Clench your fists and hold for 3-5 seconds, then release. Notice how releasing your hands relaxes your shoulders and jaw. Repeat three times. Before the introduction, breathe deeply, inhaling slowly and exhaling complete-
捏紧拳头并保持3-5秒,然后放松。你可以发现,在手掌放松的时候,你的肩膀和下巴也会放松。重复这个动作三次。在主持人介绍你之前,做深呼吸,慢慢呼气,然后将空气吐尽,此动作也重复三次。

ly. Do this three times.
No matter how nervous you are feeling, do not tell the audience.
不论你有多紧张,前往不要告诉听众

Believe me, chances are people will not notice and, even if they do, they will probably empathize and listen more closely. Just start your speech with that attention-grabber the way you planned it, no apologies necessary.
相信我,很可能你告诉了听众,听众也不鸟你;就算鸟了你,他们也很可能只会同情一下你,然后更加认真的听讲。就算你很紧张,还是就直接开始演讲吧,不需要用道歉来让听众专心听讲。

Use visual aids relevant to your topic.
用一些与主题相关的视觉辅助手段

Research has found that when knowledge is shared by telling alone, message retention after three days is only 10 percent but increases to 65 percent when both telling and showing are used.
研究表明,单单靠说来传递的信息,三天之后还保留在脑中的比例仅为10%,但如果边说边用视觉辅助手段进行演示的话,这个比例就会上升至65%。

Visual aids will help your audience remember your message longer, which means they will remember you longer, which is better for promotion and future opportunities for you.
视觉辅助手段可以帮助听众更长久地记住你的信息,这也意味着他们能更长久地记住你。这无疑对未来的提升以及源源不断的机会是一大利好。

Speak clearly and audibly. No aahs or ums. Know when and how you are going to stop. Some speakers concentrate so much on the beginning of the speech, they forget the end is every bit as important and the last thing that you will leave with your audience. Practice the ending just as much as you do the beginning.
演讲的时候要吐字清楚、抑扬顿挫,不要嗯嗯啊啊的结巴。要清楚什么时候作停顿,如何作停顿。有些讲者太过重视开头,却忘了结尾一样很重要,因为这是听众脑海中最后留下印象的内容。训练开头的同时,同样要多练练结尾。

After Surviving (Whew!)
大功告成

Seek constructive feedback for future speeches.
寻求对未来演讲有帮助的建设性反馈

Toastmasters offers many different ways to give a helpful evaluation. One of the best is the WIN formula: Tell the speaker something about the speech that was Wonderful. Offer a suggestion for Improvement. End on a Nice note – a word of encouragement or a point of strength the speaker pos-
sesses.
Toastmaster为大家提供了不同的评估方法,都十分有效。其中最好的一个就是WIN(英语Wonderful,Improvement和Nice的首字母)公式:首先告诉讲者演讲的某一部分特别好;然后给出一个改善的建议;最后总结时不忘夸赞讲者两句,这能够鼓励演讲者,使其以后有更大的动力。

For example, “Mary, your opening anecdote was relevant and powerful. It made me want to listen to what else you had to say. I would have liked more elaboration on how to relax on the day of the speech, but I found the preparation suggestions most helpful.”
这种评价打个比方可以是:“玛丽,你开篇的那个小故事相关性很强而且很有力,它让我想要更认真地听你接下去要说的话了,如果你能再具体说说演讲当天如何放松的话就更好了。尽管如此,我还是认为,你针对演讲准备的建议很有帮助,你可以想想你个人经历里喜欢的部分,然后想想可以如何改进。”

Think about what you liked about your experience and what you could improve on.
If possible, video- or audiotape your speech. Review the tape to learn areas of strength and those needing improvement.
如果条件允许,将你的演讲视频或者录音录下来。事后回放音频或视频,找出一些需要改进的地方。

Stick with Toastmasters International to continue to improve your speaking and leadership skills.
继续与Toastmaster国际组织一起锻炼演讲和领导才能

Former Toastmaster Linda Lingle, governor of Hawaii, credits Toastmasters for helping her develop her speaking skills early in her political career, giving her a chance to practice in front of a group whose members were all there for the same reason, to improve their speaking and leading abilities.
前Toastmaster成员、现夏威夷州州长琳达·林格尔将她早期政治生涯里演讲技巧的提升归功于Toastmaster。她说,只有在这个组织里,她才有机会在一群志同道合的人面前进行练习,通过一次次的尝试提高自己的演讲和领导力。

Governor Lingle says, “I felt communicating with people is so important. Toastmasters gave me the chance every week to speak in front of people who were very supportive. Everyone who is in Toastmasters is there
林格尔州长还说:“我觉得与人交流沟通是十分重要的,而Toastmaster就给了我这样一个每周演讲的机会,每一个观众都十分支持我,因为参与的人都有一个共同的目的——互相学习提高。”

because they want to get better.”
Ralph Waldo Emerson said, “Speech is power, speech is to persuade, to convert, to compel.” The ability to speak well in public is something we can learn. Just as we learned to ride a bike – perhaps after a few hard-knock spills – we got back on, found our balance and, with a little momentum, found we loved the feel of the breeze through our hair. Maybe we even put playing cards on our wheel spokes for a little pizzazz. Soon, you will be dressing up your speeches with expressive body language, vocal variety and interesting anecdotes to make the ride a pleasant one for you and your audi-
拉尔夫·沃尔多·爱默生说过:“演讲就是力量,演讲的目的是说服别人、传递信息、征服思想。”公众演讲力是可以后天习得的,就像学骑自行车一样,也许一开始会摔几跤,但每次的上车就会对于平衡更加熟悉。慢慢的,我们会有无穷的动力,因为发现自己喜欢上了清风吹过秀发的瞬间快感,这离驾轻就熟地骑车也就不远了。同样道理,过不了多久,在演讲的时候你会丰富地运用肢体语言,熟练地对自己的声音进行调整,在演讲内容里也会加上一些小趣事。

谁知道呢?随着演讲技巧的提升,说不定下一次升迁就快到了。

ence. Who knows? That next promotion might be just around the corner.

标签:演讲
53
2010-11-04 23:08 编辑:kuaileyingyu
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