TEST FOR ENGLISH MAJORS
TIME LIMIT: 195 MIN
PART I LISTENING COMPREHENSION （35 MIN）略
PART II READING COMPREHENSION （30 MIN）
In this section there are several reading passage followed by a total of twenty multiple-choice questions. Read the passage and then mark your answers on your answer sheet.
It was a day that Michael Eisner would undoubtedly like to forget. Sitting in a Los Angeles witness box for four hours last week, the usually unflappable chairman of the Walt Disney Co. struggled to maintain his composure. Eisner' s protégé turned nemesis. Jeffrey Katzenberg, his former employee, was seeking $500 million in his breach-of-contract suit against Disney, and Eisner was trying to defend his—and his company's integrity. At one point Eisner became flustered when Katzenberg's attorney, Bertram Fields, asked if he recalled telling his biographer, Tony Schwartz, " I think I hate the little midget." Later Eisner recalled that the same day, he had received a fax from Katzenberg meant for Fields, thanking the lawyer for "managing" a magazine story that praised Katzenberg at Eisner' s expense: "I said to Schwartz, ' Screw that. If he is going to play this disingenuous game…… I simply was not going to pay him his money. '"
Last week's revelations were the latest twist in a dispute that has entertained Hollywood and tarnished Disney's corporate image. The dash began five years ago, when Katzenberg quit Disney after a 10-year reign as studio chief, during which he oversaw production of such animated blockbusters as "The Lion King" . Disney's attorneys said that Katzenberg forfeited his bonus—2 percent of profits in perpetuity from all Disney movies, TV shows and stage productions from 1984 to 1994, as well as their sequels and tie-ins—when he left. The company ultimately paid Katzenberg a partial settlement of nearly $ 117 million, sources say. But talks broke down over how much Disney owed, and the dispute landed in court.
Industry insiders never expected that Disney would push it this far. The last Hollywood accounting dispute that aired in public was Art Buchwalds' s lawsuit against Paramount for profits he claimed to be owed from the 1988 Eddie Murphy hit "Coming to America". Paramount chose to fight Buchwald in court—only to wind up paying him $1 million after embarrassing revelations about its business practices. After that, studios made a practice of quietly settling such claims. But Disney under Eisner would rather fight that settle. And he and Katzenberg are both proud, combative types whose business disagreement deepened into personal animus.
So far, Disney's image—as well as Eisner's—has taken a beating. In his testimony last week Eisner repeatedly responded to questions by saying "I don't recall" or "I don't know". Katzenberg, by contrast, offered a stack of notes and memos that appeared to bolster his claim. （The Disney executive who negotiated Katzenberg's deal, Frank Wells, died in a helicopter crash five years ago.）
The trial has also offered a devastating glimpse into the Magic Kingdom's business dealings. Internal documents detail sensitive Disney financial information. One Hollywood lawyer calls a memo sent to Katzenberg from a former Disney top accountant "a road map to riches" for writers, directors and producers eager to press cases against Disney. The company declined requests to comment on the case. The next phase of the trial could be even more embarrassing. As Katzenberg's profit participation is calculated, Eisner will have to argue that his animated treasures are far less valuable than Katzenberg claims. No matter how the judge rules, Disney will look like a loser.
11. At the end of the first paragraph, the pronoun "I" in the quoted sentence "I said to Schwatz,…… "refers to _________.
12. Katzenberg made a lawsuit against Disney because ____.
A. Disney dismissed him before the contract expired
B. Eisner insulted him in a magazine by calling him "the little midget"
C. Disney did not pay him in accordance with the contract
D. Disney owed him $ 117 million
13. Hollywood studios now try to avoid sealing disputes with their employees in court because they fear that ____.
A. involvement in a lawsuit will tarnish their reputation
B. many of their illegal business practices will be found out by the public
C. lawyers will overcharge them for such cases
D. their confidential business information will be divulged
14. It is implied in the last paragraph that ____.
A. Disney has profited much less than the general public expected
B. Disney has underpaid many of their employees
C. Eisner's animated movies didn't bring as much money as Katzenberg thinks
D. Disney is undergoing a financial crisis
15. We can infer from this passage that __________.
A. Katzenberg will undoubtedly win the lawsuit and get all the money he claimed
B. Eisner will remain imperturbable all through the trial
C. Katzenberg will suffer great embarrassment
D. Disney will face more lawsuits from their employees
Researchers investigating brain size and mental ability say their work offers evidence that education protects the mind from the brain's physical deterioration.
It is known that the brain shrinks as the body ages, but the effects on mental ability are different from person to person. Interestingly, in a study of elderly men and women, those who had more education actually had more brain shrinkage.
"That may seem like bad news," said study author Dr. Edward Coffey, a professor of psychiatry and of neurology at Henry Ford Health System in Detroit. However, he explained, the finding suggests that education allows people to withstand more brain-tissue loss before their mental functioning begins to break down.
The study, published in the July issue of Neurology, is the first to provide biological evidence to support a concept called the "reserve" hypothesis, according to the researchers. In recent years, investigators have developed the idea that people who are more educated have greater cognitive reserves to draw upon as the brain tissue to spare.
Examining brain scans of 320 healthy men and women ages 66 to 90, researchers found that for each year of education the subjects had, there was greater shrinkage of the outer layer of the brain known as the cortex. Yet on tests of cognition and memory, all participants scored in the range indicating normal.
"Everyone has some degree of brain shrinkage," Coffey said. "People lose （on average） 2.5 percent decade starting at adulthood.
There is, however, a "remarkable range" of shrinkage among people who show no signs of mental decline, Coffey noted. Overall health, he said, accounts for some differences in brain size. Alcohol or drug use, as well as medical conditions such as diabetes and high blood pressure, contribute to brain-tissue loss throughout adulthood.
In the absence of such medical conditions, Coffey said, education level helps explain the range of brain shrinkage exhibited among the mentally-fit elderly. The more-educated can withstand greater loss.
Coffey and colleagues gauged shrinkage of the cortex by measuring the cerebrospinal fluid surrounding the brain. The greater the amount of fluid, the greater the cortical shrinkage. Controlling for the health factors that contribute to brain injury, the researchers found that education was related to the severity of brain shrinkage. For each year of education from first grade on, subjects had an average of 1.77 milliliters more cerebrospinal fluid around the brain.
For example, Coffey's team reported, among subjects of the same sex and similar age and skull size, those with 16 years of education had 8 percent to 10 percent more cerebrospinal fluid compared with those who had four years of schooling.
Of course, achieving a particular education level is not the definitive measure of someone's mental capacity. And, said Coffey, education can be "a proxy for many things". More-educated people, he noted, are often less likely to have habits, such as smoking, that harm overall health. But Coffey said that his team's findings suggest that like the body, the brain benefits from exercise. "The question is whether by continuing to exercise the brain we can forestall the effects of （brain shrinkage）," he said. "My hunch is that we can."
According to Coffey, people should strive throughout life to keep their brains alert by exposing themselves to new experiences. Travelling is one way to stimulate the brain, he said; a less adventuresome way is to do crossword puzzles.
"A hot topic down the road," Coffey said, will be whether education even late in life has a protective effect against mental decline.
Just how education might affect brain cells is unknown. In their report, the researchers speculated that in people with more education, certain brain structures deeper than the cortex may stay intact to compensate for cortical shrinkage.
16.According to this passage, all of the following factors could account for brain shrinkage except
17.Which of the following statements is true?
A.The brain of an adult person shrinks 2.5% every 10 years.
B.The cerebrospinal fluid of a person with 8 years of education may have increased by 17.7 millimeters.
C.The cerebrospinal fluid of a person with 16 years of education may increase by 10%.
D.The brain of an aged person shrinks 5% every 10 years.
18.According to Coffey's research, the brain may benefit from
B. playing chess
D. playing football.
19. From this passage, we can conclude that __________.
A. education is beneficial to mental development.
B. education protects the brain from shrinking.
C. education has a protective effect against mental decline.
D. education affects overall brain structures.
Roger Rosenblatt's book Black Fiction, in attempting to apply literary rather than sociopolitical criteria to its subject, successfully alters the approach taken by most previous studies. As Rosenblatt notes, criticism of Black writing has often served as a pretext for expounding on Black history. Addison Gayle's recent work, for example, judges the value of Black fiction by overtly political standards, rating each work according to the notions of Black identity which it introduces.
Although fiction assuredly springs from political circumstances, its authors react to those circumstances in ways other than ideological, and talking about novels and stories primarily as instruments of ideology outwits much of the fictional enterprise. Rosenblatt's literary analysis discloses affinities and connections among works of Black fiction which solely political studies have overlooked or ignored.
Writing acceptable criticism of Black fiction, however, presupposes giving satisfactory answers to a number of questions. First of all, is there a sufficient reason, other than the racial identity to the authors, to group together works by Black authors? Second, how does Black fiction make itself distinct from other modem fiction with which it is largely contemporaneous? Rosenblatt shows that Black fiction constitutes a distinct body of writing that has an identifiable, coherent literary tradition. Looking at novels written by Blacks over the last eighty years, he discovers recurring concerns and designs independent of chronology. These structures are related to the themes, and they spring, not surprisingly, from the central fact that the Black characters in these novels exist in a predominantly White culture, whether they try to conform to that culture or rebel against it.
Black Fiction does leave some aesthetic questions open. Rosenblatt's theme-based analysis permits considerable objectivity, he even explicitly states that it is not his intention to judge the merit of the various works, yet his reluctance seems misplaced, especially since an attempt to appraise might have led to interesting results. For instance, some of the novels appear to be structurally diffuse. Is this a defect, or are the authors working out of, or trying to forge, a different kind of aesthetic? In addition, the style of some Black novels, like Jean Tommer's Cane, verges on expressionism or surrealism; does this technique provide a counterpoint to the prevalent theme that portrays the fate against which Black heroes are pitted, a theme usually conveyed by more naturalistic modes of expression?
In spite of such omissions, what Rosenblatt does include in his discussion makes for an astute and worthwhile study. Black Fiction surveys a wide variety of novels, bringing to our attention in the process some fascinating and little-known works like James Weldon Johnson's Autobiography of an Ex-colored Man. Its argument is tightly constructed, and its forthright, lucid style exemplifies levelheaded and penetrating criticism.
20. The author objects to criticism of Black fiction like that by Addison Gayle because it
A. emphasizes purely literary aspects of such fiction
B. misinterprets the ideological content of such fiction
C. misunderstands the notions of Black identity contained in such fiction
D. substitutes political for literary criteria in evaluating such fiction
21. The author of the passage is primarily concerned with
A. evaluating the soundness of a work of criticism
B. comparing various critical approaches to "a subject
C. discussing the limitations of a particular kind of criticism
D. summarizing the major points made in a work of criticism
22.The author believes that Black Fiction would have been improved, had Resenblatt
A. evaluated more carefully the ideological and historical aspects of Black fiction
B. attempted to be more objective in his approach to novels and stories by Black authors
C. explored in greater detail the recurrent thematic concerns of Black fiction throughout its history
D. assessed the relative literary merit of the novels he analyzes thematically
23.The author's discussion of Black Fiction can be best described as
A. pedantic and contentious
B. critical but admiring
C. ironic and deprecating
D. argumentative but unfocused
24.It can be inferred that the author would be LEAST likely to approve of which of the following?
A. An analysis of the influence of political events on the personal ideology of Black writers
B. A critical study that applies sociopolitical criteria to autobiographies by Black authors
C. A literary study of Black poetry that appraises the merits of poems according to the political acceptability of their themes
D. An examination of the growth of a distinct Black literary tradition within the context of Black history
25.The author refers to James Weldon Johnson's Autobiography of an Ex-colored Man most probably in order to
A. point out affinities between Rosenblatt's method of thematic analysis and earlier criticism
B. clarify the point about expressionistic style made earlier in the passage
C. qualify the assessment of Rosenblatt's book made in the first paragraph of the passage
D. give a specific example of one of the accomplishments of Rosenbaltts' work
SOMETHING ABOUT NAPLES just seems made for comedy. The name alone conjures up pizza, and lovable, incorrigible innocents warbling "O Sole Mio"; a nutty little corner of the world where the id runs wild and the only answer to the question "Why?" appears to be "Why not?"
Naples: the butter-side-down of Italian cities, where even the truth has a strangely fictitious tinge. One day a car rear-ended one of the city's minibuses. The bus driver got out to investigate. While he stood there talking, his only passenger took the wheel and drove off. Neither passenger nor bus was ever seen again.
Then there was that busy lunch hour in the central post office when a crack in the ceiling opened and postal workers were overwhelmed by an avalanche of stale croissants. As the cleaners hauled away garbage bags of moldy breakfast rolls, the questions remained: Who? Why? And what else could still be up there?
But Naples actually isn't so funny. Italy's third largest city, with 1.1 million people, has a much darker side, where chaos reigns: bag snatching and mugging, clogged streets of stupefying confusion, where traffic moves to mysterious laws of its own through multiple intersections whose traffic lights haven't functioned for months, maybe years - if they have lights at all. Packs of wild dogs roam the city's main park. Nineteen policemen on the anti-narcotics squad are arrested for accepting payoffs from the Camorra, the local Mafia.
To many Italians, particularly those in the wealthy, industrialized north, none of this is surprising. To them Naples means political corruption, wasted federal subsidies, rampant organized crime, appallingly large families, and cunning, lazy people who prefer to do something shady rather than honest work……
Nepolitans know their reputation. "People think nothing ever gets done here," said a young professional woman. "Sometimes they say, 'Surely you come from Milan. You come from Naples? Naples?"
Giovanni del Forno, an insurance executive, told me about his flight home from a northern Italian city, the plane waited on the tarmac for half an hour for a gate to become available. "And I began to hear the comments around me: 'Well, here we are in Naples,"' he said with a wince. "These comments make me suffer."
Neapolitans may complain, but most can't conceive of living anywhere else. The city has the intimacy, tension, and craziness of a large but intensely devoted family. The people have the same perverse pride as New Yorkers. They love even the things that don't work, and they love being Neapolitans. They know outsiders don't get it, and they don't care. "Even if you go away", one woman said, "you remain a prisoner of this city. My city has many problems, but away from it I feel bad."
This is a city in which living on the brink of collapse is normal. Naples has survived wars, revolutions, floods, earthquakes, and eruptions of nearby Vesuvius. First a wealthy colony founded by the Greeks （who called it Neapolis, or "new city"）, then a flourishing Roman resort, it lived through various incarnations under dynasties of Normans, Swabians, Austrians, Spanish, and French, not to mention a glorious period as the resplendent capital of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.
It was a brilliant, cultivated city that once ranked with London and Paris. The Nunziatella, the oldest military school in Italy, still basks in its two centuries of historic glory; the Teatro San Carlo remains one of the greatest opera houses in the world. The treasures of Pompeii grace the National Museum. Stretched luxuriantly between mountains and sea along the curving coast of the Bay of Naples, full of ornate palaces, gardens, churches, and works of art, with its mild climate and rich folklore, Naples in the last century was beloved by artists and writers. The most famous response to this magnificence was the comment by an unknown admirer, "See Naples and die."
Today that remark carries less poetic connotations. The bombardments of World War II were followed by the depredations of profiteers and politicians-for-rent who reduced the city to a demoralized shadow of itself, surviving on government handouts. Until five years ago city governments were cobbled together by warring political factions; some mayors lasted only a few months. A cholera outbreak in 1973 was followed in 1980 by a major earthquake. Its famous port has withered （though the U.S. Sixth Fleet command is still based just up the coast）, industries have failed, tourists have fled, natives have moved out—it seems that only drug trafficking is booming. "Unlivable," the Neapolitans say. "Incomprehensible". "Martyred".
26.The two examples in the second and third paragraphs intend to show that
A. Naples has a high incidence of traffic accidents.
B. anything extraordinary can happen in Naples.
C. people there love to store food for years.
D. everything appears to be on the wrong side.
27.The following words are appropriate to describe traffic conditions in Naples EXCEPT
28.It can be concluded from the passage that the Northerners
A. are critical of what Naples represents.
B. sympathize with Neopolitans.
C. share many things with Neopolitans,
D. make every effort to shun Neopolitans.
29. The author implies that Neopolitans' affection for the city
A. was unrealistic.
B. went a bit too far.
C. was extraordinary.
D. gave rise to concern.
30. When the author says "Today that remark carries less poetic connotations," he actually means that
A. the city can now boast very few poets.
B. artists and writers have left for London and Paris.
C. the city underwent heavy bombing during the War.
D. The city's present problems obscured its glorious past.
PART III GENERAL KNOWLEDGE （10 MIN）
There are ten multiple-choice questions in this section. Choose the best answer to each question. Mark your answers on your answer sheet.
31. ________________ delivered his world-famous speech Gettysburg Address during the Civil War.
32. After the Norman Conquest the official language in England was _____________.
33. After the Glorious Revolution _________________________ was established in Britain.
A. Feudalism and Aristocracy
B. Constitutional Monarchy
C. Absolute Anarchy
D. Laissez Faire
34. __________________ proposed New Deal.
35. Captain Ahab is the most fascinating hero in _______________________.
A. The Old Man and the Sea
B. Moby Dick
C. Leaves of Grass
D. Robinson Crusoe
36. ___________________ authored The Wrath of Grapes.
37. Robert Browning is often associated with ___________________.
A. stream of consciousness
B. dramatic monologue
C. heroic couplet
D. multiple point of view
38. __________________ analysis is a process of grammatical analysis according to which a syntactic construction can be analyzed into its basic units.
39. The founder of Behaviorism is ___________________.
40. _______________ is a word which is the reflection of more than one objects or concepts.
PART IV PROOFREADING& ERROR CORRECTION （15 MIN）
Proofread the given passage on ANSWER SHEET TWO as instructed.
PART V TRANSLATION （60 MIN）
SECTION A CHINESE TO ENGLISH
Translate the underlined part of the following text into English. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.
SECTION B ENGLISH TO CHINESE
Translate the underlined part of the following text into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.
The balance of nature is a very elaborate and very delicate system of checks and counterchecks. It is continually being altered as climates change, as new organisms evolve, as animals or plants permeate to new areas. But the alterations have in the past, for the most part, been slow, whereas with the arrival of civilized man, their speed has been multiplied manifold: from the evolutionary time-scale, where change is measured by periods of ten or a hundred thousand years, they have been transferred to the human time-scale in which centuries and even decades count.
Everywhere man is altering the balance of nature. He is facilitating the spread of plants and animals into new regions, sometimes deliberately, sometimes unconsciously. He is covering huge areas with new kinds of plants, or with houses, factories, slag-heaps and other products of his civilization. He exterminates some species on a large scale, but favors the multiplication of others. In brief, he has done more in five thousand years to alter the biological aspect of the planet than has nature in five million.
PART VI WRITING （45 MIN）
Throughout our lives we have many teachers, and parents have been regarded as first and important teachers. And still some others strongly hold the view that parents are the best teachers.“Do you agree or disagree with this point of view? Write an essay of about 400 words entitled:
Parents are the best teachers?
In the first part of your writing you should state your main argument, and in the second part you should support your argument with appropriate details （or examples）. In the last part you should bring what you have written to a natural conclusion or make a summary.
Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriateness. Failure to follow the above instructions may result in a loss of marks.
Write your essay on ANSWER SHEET FOUR……
Joy and sadness are experienced by people in all cultures around the world, but how can we tell when other people are happy or despondent? It turns out that the expression of many
"When people succeed, it is because of hard work, Luck has nothing to do with success." Do you agree or disagree with the quotation above? Use specific and examples to explain your