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性别仅仅只是自然选择吗?

所属:生活杂谈 作者:网络转载 阅读:10818 次 评论:0 条 [我要评论]  [+我要收藏]

There are all sorts of old wives' tales about how to influence the biological sex of your unborn baby. Want a boy? Better eat some red meat. Want to paint the nursery pink? You should indulge in chocolate, and lots of it. And in these modern times, there are ways to scientifically pick the sex of your baby: Clinics that screen fertilized embryos for genetic diseases can also determine if the embryo is male or female, allowing parents to pick whether they'll have a boy or a girl.
关于如何影响胎儿的生物性别,有各种各样的无稽之谈。像是如果你想要一个男孩,那就多吃些红色肉类;如果你想要幼儿园里那样粉嘟嘟脸庞的女儿,那就狂吃巧克力,越多越好。在这个现代化的时代,有很多科学方法来选择胎儿性别:通过临床诊断筛选出那些带有遗传疾病的受精卵,这也可以影响胎儿的性别,从而让父母决定是要男孩还是女孩
These parents may be able to choose the biological sex of their baby, but there's no sure way to pick the gender. While sex is a biological definition, determined by factors such as chromosome count and genitalia, gender -- or the state of being male or female -- is a social construct. Different societies have different rules for how men and women should appear and behave. Women who wear dresses and bake cookies would be fulfilling the norms associated to that gender in our society; men who wear makeup and lingerie don't fit those norms.
父母可以选择胎儿的生物性别,但是目前还没有确定的办法来选择社会性别。虽然性别是由诸如染色体数量和生殖器来决定,是一种生物上的定义,可是社会性别,即是处于一种男性状态还是女性状态,是一种社会概念。不同的社会对于男性和女性应该怎么样有不同的规则。穿着套裙制作甜点的女性符合在社会中的性别定位准则,而化妆或穿着女式内衣的男性则不符合这种准则。
People who don't fit into the set rules of a gender identity can make other people nervous and uncomfortable. We may want them to stop what they're doing and act the way we think they're supposed to act. As it turns out, the formation of a gender identity isn't well understood, but it's likely not a choice that someone can just change. A person's gender identity is probably shaped by a wealth of forces, including hormone levels, gene regulation, popular culture and family influences. The point at which people realize their gender is a matter that's still being debated by researchers. Some posit that gender identity is firmly fixed at a very young age; others argue that this identity can be very fluid for many years.
那些不符合社会既定性别规则的人会使其他人感到紧张和不舒服。我们可能想要阻止他们现在所做的,然后按照我们认为他们应该怎么样做来做。其实,除了这是一个人们不可能改变的选择,社会性别认同的构建也并不是很容易被人们理解。一个人社会性别的形成可能受很多因素的影响,包括激素水平、基因调节、流行文化和家庭作用。研究人员对人们在哪一点上会觉得性别认同是一个问题仍在争论不休。有些认为性别认同在很小的年龄就被牢牢地固定;另一些人则争辩说,这种身份可能不固定已经很多年了。
Most people identify with the gender that is aligned with their biological sex, but some people identify with the opposite gender, both genders or neither gender. These people might make a choice to reject traditional gender assignments -- a man who identifies as a woman may choose to dress that way. For some people, making these adjustments is enough of a compromise between their physical sex and their gender identity. Others, however, feel the need to make the physical parts match what's in their head, and these people may choose sexual reassignment surgery. If feelings of gender confusion go unaddressed, extreme depression may occur.
大多数人的社会性别认同都和他们的生物性别一致,但有些人的社会性别认同与生物性别相反,有些双性或无性别认同。这些人可能做出拒绝传统社会性别角色分配的选择来,像是一个认为自己是女性的男士会像女性那样穿衣打扮。对有些人来说,进行一些调整适应,是在他们生理性别和心理社会性别认同之间的一种莫大妥协。然而,另外一些人觉得必须得让自己的生理部分与他们心理认同的性别一致,这些人可能选择做变性手术。如果感到自己性别归属混乱以致无法启齿,就会出现极度忧郁沮丧。
Gender identity disorder is the medical term used for people who identify with a gender that is different from their biological sex, and the condition is included in the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). The classification of gender identity disorder as a mental disorder is controversial, because it implies that something is wrong with the person who has it, while he or she may only be seeking to make something right. But since our society tends to treat gender as a rigid, innate thing, there's little surprise that society doesn't know what to do with those who don't fit within its norms. So while people may not be able to change how they feel on the inside, they may have to perform their given gender to get along in society.
性别错位症是医学术语,它用于那些对自己社会性别与生理性别认同不一致的人,其他的病征在当期《精神错乱诊断与统计手册》(DSM-IV)中。把性别错位症归为一种精神障碍是有争议的,因为如果那样的话就暗示着一些事情是错的,而有这些症状的人却在设法使其正确。但是由于社会倾向于把社会性别看作是一种严格的与生俱来的东西,对于那些不符合准则的人们,社会也不知道该怎么办,这也就没什么大惊小怪的了。所以,即使人们无法改变他们内心真实的感受,他们也不得不履行已定的社会性别身份,从而在社会上勉强生活。
标签:性别
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2010-10-11 22:41 编辑:kuaileyingyu
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