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教会孩子理财

所属:成长励志 作者:网络转载 阅读:7715 次 评论:0 条 [我要评论]  [+我要收藏]

随着孩子们陆续开学了,为准备开学的购物让我看到到自己教育孩子理财成功和失败的地方。正如我一样,每个家长都在为如何教会孩子关于缴税,退休金计划,为未来储蓄和一切基本的金融知识而苦恼。在美国bogletheads论坛上讨论了许多年的结论也许能给我们以一些这方面的建议。
A recent round of back-to-school shopping highlighted my successes and failures in teaching my children financial skills. All parents struggle with how to teach children about taxes, 401(k) plans, saving for the future and other critical financial skills. Discussions on the bogleheads.org forum over the last few years have provided several suggestions from other posters that I have adopted in my own family.
1.把税从收入中减去
1. Take Out Taxes
我的孩子们现在十几岁,但是从很多年前我们就给他们零用钱。一开始我告诉他们,每到发零用钱的日子,他们每个人都会拿到10美元。孩子们很高兴的以为这样就能发大财。然而这种快乐的想法一只延续到发零用钱的日子,因为那天他们实际上每个人只拿到了9美元。这是我出尔反尔了?不是的,我告诉他们,这是因为每个人都要交纳10%的个人所得税,所以他们拿到的10美元零用钱中1美元用来缴纳税款,所以最后到手的只有9美元。于是孩子们从这件事上学到了缴税的概念。这次事件中,消失的那个美元就是一个很好的机会让家长和孩子们讨论缴纳的税款是怎样让学校,警察,消防部门等等许多公共服务让社会上每个人都受益的。
My children are now young teens, but several years ago they began receiving allowance. When they learned they would each receive $10 in allowance every payday, they were thrilled to be "rich." The joy lasted until that first payday arrived and they received only $9 each. Obviously I had made a mistake. Nope, they just learned the impact of taxes. Since they were in the 10% tax bracket, $1 left their paycheck to pay for taxes and they received $9 in their hands. The missing dollar provided an opportunity for a family discussion how taxes pay for services like schools, police, and fire departments that benefit everyone in the community.
2 . 养成存款的习惯
2 . Automate Savings
为了让我的孩子能了解到存款的重要性,一直以来我都要求它们每次把得到的零用钱中的6美元放入不同的储蓄罐里。储蓄罐分成:大学 ,车和其他任何想买的东西三个。现在他们离考驾照和上大学的年纪越来越近了,他们也渐渐地意识到与其每个月一口气把所有的钱都花掉还不如有计划的储蓄好让那些每个月看起来微不足道的小钱渐渐的变成了车,变成了学费。这些储蓄很快就能让我的孩子从中受益。他们现在已经发现这些储蓄是为了自己的目标,而不是仅仅为了父母的目标,意识到这点以后他们开始想办法根据自己的目标和计划往里面多存一些钱。在这里,要让孩子们意识到储蓄最后的受益者和支配者是他们自己,孩子们便会有更加多的热情。
To learn the importance of automating savings, my children were required to automatically have $6 of all future allowances placed directly into their savings accounts to be divided into different buckets--college, car, and "spend it on anything" (parents have the veto power for non-suitable items). As they now approach driving age and college, they are finally beginning to appreciate that setting aside funds for the future rather than spending all their money immediately will mean they can afford transportation and an education. These funds will soon benefit them, and they now voluntarily contribute extra money to these savings accounts because these have become personal goals and are no longer just parental goals. The lesson here is that ownership of the saving goal is key.
3. 储蓄补贴
3. Match Savings
政府,雇主和家长们都在为怎样鼓励存款而伤脑筋。在bogleheads上的一个帖子指出,储蓄补贴是一个鼓励孩子们储蓄得很好的办法。就像养老金的储蓄一样,自己拿出多少钱储蓄,政府就在你的养老储蓄账户里补贴相当比例的数额的钱。我对孩子们的储蓄也用相同的鼓励政策,他们每次的储蓄都能得到父母100%的补贴。
The government, employers and parents all struggle with how to encourage savings. One of the posters on bogleheads.org suggested matching savings in the way most employers matching funds going into 401(k) or other retirement accounts. It seemed to be worth trying. For simplicity, a dollar-for-dollar match (100% matching) became an option. For every dollar placed into their savings account, mom and dad match 100%.
孩子们很快就发现,将他们手上的零钱存在储蓄账户里就意味着他们能得到更多的钱。就算他们把每个月的钱分开的放入大学,车子,和任何想买的东西的储蓄账户里,他们手上任就有相同的钱用来零用,而有更多的钱在长期的储蓄账户里。
The children quickly realized that placing their cash into savings meant they had more in total. Even after placing some of that money automatically into their college, car and "spend it on anything" accounts, they had almost the same amount of money available to spend, but much more growing for longer-term goals. (A word of caution--100% matching of larger birthday and Christmas cash gifts from relatives can get expensive.)
4. 给孩子们介绍投资的概念。
4. Introduce Investing
在让孩子们坚持了很多年的零用钱储蓄计划后,他们的储蓄账户上的钱也到达了一定数目。这个时候就是差不多能给他们介绍投资的概念。对孩子们来说选择股票还是选择债券,是一个非常困难的选择。一些人建议,孩子们需要的是长期的投资所以他们可以把所有的钱投到股市中去。而另一方面,他们很快到了买车和读大学的年纪了,投资债券似乎更加保险。
After several years of saving allowance, Christmas and birthday money, my children finally reached large enough balances in their accounts and it was time to introduce them to the concept of investing, rather than just saving. It isn't easy with children to select a proper asset allocation (split between stocks and bonds) that balances the need and ability to take on risk. Many would argue that children have a very long-term investing timeline, so they should be all in stocks. On the other hand, since they actually have a relatively short timeframe for the car and college money, one could argue they should be in bonds.
最后我觉得,让孩子们学会投资只是一个教学,所以要让孩子们的钱在股市中不会大幅度的缩水才是最重要的。毕竟看着800美元或者1000美元就这么消失是一件很恐怖的事,会大大打击孩子们的投资兴趣。 所以我们选择了保守的资产配置方法:让孩子们的大学和车的储蓄依旧保持不动,而是用剩下的钱来做长期的风险投资。
Finally, since the real purpose of this investment exercise is education, making sure the swings in the stock market did not cause them a significant loss of funds was important. Watching $800 to $1,000 disappear can be scary for anyone, so we settled on a conservative asset allocation that would allow some funds to remain stable (college and car funds) and some to be invested in equities to potentially grow over many years.
孩子们看着自己的资产起起伏伏,在过去的几年里更是有过很大幅度的变化。但是他们一直没有从股市里抽身的意愿。他们明白较低的价格给他们带来的是机会,因为他们正处在投资生命周期的起点。这些经历会让他们在他们将来有了更多的钱用来的投资的时候给他们带去实际的作用。
Article ControlsThey have watched the value of their assets rise and fall, sometimes drastically, over the last few years, but have never been tempted to pull out of the market. They understand that lower prices represent bargains for them because they are at the beginning of their investing lifecycle. These lessons will pay off when they have much larger sums of money to invest in the future.
5. 让孩子们在“浪费钱”中学习
5. Let Them Learn By "Wasting" Money
很多年轻人都在非常愚蠢的购买中浪费他们的金钱。一些年轻人贷款买华丽的车;一些年轻人无度的透支信用卡账户而他们更本无法偿还那些债务。这些都是昂贵的教训让他们从中领悟到生活的艰辛。为了让我的孩子明白如何管理好自己的钱,我们在家里规定了,爸爸妈妈为他们的生活必需品买单而那些他们自己想要的东西由他们自己支付。他们可以用“任何想买的东西”里的钱去购买那些他们想要的东西。
All young people waste money on stupid purchases. Some young adults borrow money to buy a "hot" car; others charge on their credit cards vacations they cannot afford. These are all expensive lessons to learn at that point in life. To help my children learn to manage money, we made it clear that mom and dad would pay for all needs, but the children would use their own money to pay for any wants. They kept that money in the "spend it on anything" account (again, subject to parental veto if not suitable).
我的孩子买过廉价玩具,放学后给他的伙伴们买过零食,用存了好几个月的钱去买电动游戏,名牌鞋子和牛仔裤好让自己在学校里很拉风。他们为自己的买的很多东西后悔,但是重来没有用长期的欠债来购买,并且他们从每次的后悔中学到一些教训。现在他们购买理智了很多,并且不再轻易的被流行趋势动摇。
My children bought cheap toys that broke in one use, paid for after-school snacks for all their friends, saved several months to purchase videogames and used their own funds to buy the "brand" of shoes or jeans that would make them popular in school. They regretted many of these purchases. But none of these decisions put them in long-term debt, and they learned from each experience. Now they are much more careful with their money and much less easily swayed by the latest fad.
6. 对孩子们的理财教育是一个在日常生活中持续着的长久过程
6. Treat Money Lessons As An Ongoing Experience
我对我两个十几岁孩子的理财教育还在继续。让我欣喜的是,我的两个孩子已经意识到金钱的意义和用处。最近,我的儿子要求我带他去买一件特殊的运动衫。当我们买好东西准备结账的时候,我提醒他,这是你想要的东西,并不是你日常需要的东西,所以你得自己付这笔钱。然后他一点怨言也没有就转身把衣服放回货架上。被问及如果有东西你自己都觉得不值得花钱买的,你觉得父母就应该为你买吗?他想了一阵子后,回答道:看来我不应该花你的钱。看来,他懂得考虑别人了。
With two young teens at home, the lessons for all of us are still ongoing. However, there are signs that they are indeed learning the value of money. One of my children recently wanted a special sports shirt and insisted I take him shopping. As we walked toward the cashier, I reminded him that this was a want, not a need, so he had to pay for it himself. Without any argument he turned right around and returned the shirt to the rack. When asked why his parents should spend their money on something if it wasn't important enough for him to use his own money on it, he thought about it for several minutes and then replied, "it isn't worth spending your money on either." Lesson learned.
标签:孩子 教会 理财
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2010-10-11 19:11 编辑:kuaileyingyu
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