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大学里没学到的7种必需技能

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It’s the 21st century. Knowing how to read a novel, craft an essay, and derive the slope of a tangent isn’t enough anymore. You need to know how to swim through the data deluge, optimize your prose for Twitter, and expose statistics that lie. In the following pages, you’ll find our updated core curriculum, which fills in the gaps of your 20th-century education with the tools you need now. Call it the neoliberal arts: higher learning for highly evolved humans.

现在是21世纪了。懂得怎样阅读小说、写写文章或推导切线斜率,已经无法满足当下的需求了。你需要知道怎样在数据的汪洋里劈波斩浪,怎样优化推客上的散文,以及怎样揭露那些说谎的统计数据。在下面几页里,你会看到我们更新版核心课程,借助现在必需的工具,它们将为20世纪教育查漏补缺。权且称之为新式人文科学:面向高度进化人类的高等教育。

Statistical Literacy

统计素养

Why take this course?
为什么要学这一课程?

We are misled by numbers and by our misunderstanding of probability.
我们或被数字所误导,或被自己对概率的错误理解所误导。

What you’ll learn:
   你将学到什么:

How to parse polls, play the odds, and embrace uncertainty.
   怎样剖析投票,怎样碰碰运气,以及怎样接受不确定性。


e use only 10 percent of our brain! That familiar statement is false—there’s no evidence to support it. Still, something about it just sounds right, so we internalize it and repeat it. Such is the power—and danger—of statistics.
  我们只用了大脑的10%!这个熟知的说法是错的——没有证据能支持它。然而,该说法听起来有些像对的,因而我们吸收并不断重复它。这便是统计的力量,也是统计的危险。

Our world is shaped by widespread statistical illiteracy. We fear things that probably won’t kill us (terrorist attacks) and ignore things that probably will (texting while driving). We buy lottery tickets. We fall prey to misleading gut instincts, which lead to biases like loss aversion—an inability to gauge risk against potential gain. The effects play out in the grocery store, the office, and the voting booth (not to mention the bedroom: People who are more risk-averse are less successful in love).
   统计无知影响着我们世界的发展。我们担心那些可能不会害死我们的事情(如恐怖袭击),却忽略那些可能害死我们的事情(如驾驶时发短信)。我们买彩票。我们深受直觉误导之害,直觉会让我们产生偏见,如损失厌恶——估计不到风险背后的潜在收益。其效果屡屡作用于杂货店、办公室和投票站(更不用提卧室了:越是不愿承担风险的人,爱情越容易失败)。

And it’s getting worse: We are now 53 percent more likely than our parents to trust polls of dubious merit. (That figure is totally made up. See?) Where do all these numbers that we remember so easily and cite so readily come from? How are they calculated, and by whom? How do we misuse them to make them say what we want them to? We’ll explore all of these questions in a sequence on sourcing statistics.
   而情况变得更糟的是:与父母相比,我们对可疑成绩的投票的信任度上升了53%。(这一数字完全是捏造出来的吗?)所有这些我们轻松记住、随手拈来的数字从何而来?它们怎么计算出来的,谁计算的?我们怎样滥用这些数字,以使之得出我们想要的结果?我们将在统计溯源的系列里探讨所有这些问题。

Next, this course will turn to the topic of probabilistic intuition. We’ll learn to judge what’s likely and unlikely—and what’s impossible to know. We’ll learn about distorting habits of mind like selection bias—and how to guard against them. We’ll gamble. We’ll read The Art of Probability for Scientists and Engineers by Richard Hamming, Expert Political Judgment by Philip Tetlock, and How to Cheat Your Friends at Poker by Penn Jillette and Mickey Lynn.
   接下来,该课程会转到概率直觉的主题上。我们将学习判断什么是可能的,什么是不可能的,还有什么是不可知的。我们将学习头脑的曲解习惯,如选择性偏倚,以及怎样对其进行防范。我们还将赌一把。我们将阅读理查德·汉明(Richard Hamming)[注1]所著《The Art of Probability for Scientists and Engineers》、菲利浦·泰洛克(Philip Tetlock)[注2]所著《Expert Political Judgment》,以及佩恩·吉列特(Penn Jillette)[注3]和米基·林恩(Mickey Lynn)所著《How to Cheat Your Friends at Poker》。

Finally, we’ll learn how to use statistics to our advantage. You don’t have to be an actuary to understand just how likely various potential outcomes actually are.
   最后,我们将学习怎样利用统计数据的优势。如果只是了解各种潜在结果到底可不可能,你用不着成为精算师。

注1:理查德·汉明(1915-1998):美国著名数学家,主要贡献在计算机科学与通信学,曾获ACM图灵奖。
注2:菲利浦·泰洛克:美国加州大学伯克利分校心理学、商业和政治学教授。
注3:佩恩·吉列特:美国魔术师、音乐家。

Post-State Diplomacy

 后国家外交

Why take this course?
   为什么要学这一课程?

As the world becomes evermore atomized, understanding the new leaders and constituencies becomes increasingly important.
   因为世界始终在原子化,所以了解新领导人和新选民就愈渐重要了。

What you’ll learn:
   你将学到什么:

How to practice statecraft without states.
   怎样实践无关国家的治国之术。


rom tribal insurgents to multinational corporations, private charities to pirate gangs, religious movements to armies for hire, a range of organizations now compete with (and sometimes eclipse) the nation-states in which they reside. Without capitals or traditional constituencies, they can’t be persuaded or deterred by traditional tactics.
  从部落叛党到多国公司,从私人慈善团体到海盗匪帮,从宗教运动到雇佣军队,现在,一系列组织在与它们所属的民族国家竞争。没有首都,也没有传统意义上的选民,它们也不会被传统策略所说服或抑制。

But that doesn’t mean diplomacy is dead; quite the opposite. Negotiating with these parties requires the same skills as dealing with belligerent nations—understanding the shareholders and alliances they must answer to, the cultures that inform how they behave, and the religious, economic, and political interests they must address.
   但是这不意味着外交就消亡了;情况恰好相反。与这些团体谈判需要拥有对付交战国的相同技能——要了解谁是他们必需的股东,谁是他们必需的同盟,影响他们行为的文化是什么,以及哪些宗教、经济和政治利益是他们必须面对的。

Power has always depended on who can provide justice, commerce, and stability. Successful insurgents aren’t just thugs; they offer their members tangible benefits—community, money, education, and a sense of order (even if the rebels are the ones creating disorder in the first place). We must learn how they gain loyalty, even if our goal is to undercut it.
   权力总是要看谁能提供公正、贸易和稳定。成功的叛党不仅仅是暴徒;他们也为其成员提供好处——社群、金钱、教育和秩序感(即使反叛分子起初是制造骚乱的那些人)。我们必须学习他们怎样赢得忠心,即便我们的目标是要暗中破坏它。

In this course, we’ll study how some of the most influential entities on the world stage—religious extremists, criminal enterprises, diasporas—are at their most potent online and must be engaged there. Case in point: the South Ossetia War, in which Russian hackers set up websites that enabled anyone sympathetic to their cause to launch denial-of-service attacks against Georgian targets. We’ll learn how to go about winning over the hearts and minds of these transnational groups. This requires launching sophisticated media and political campaigns—in much the same way that underground samizdat publications and Radio Free Europe broadcasts served to undermine the international Communist movement during the Cold War.
   在本课程中,我们将学习世界舞台上一些最有影响力的实体——宗教极端分子、犯罪企业和流散者——是怎样在网上发挥其最大效力的,以及为何必须在网上活动。举个例子:在南奥塞梯战争中,俄罗斯黑客建立了网站,使得每个人都对他们向格鲁吉亚目标发起拒绝服务攻击表示同情。我们将学习怎样四处活动以赢得那些跨国组织的民心。这要求启动老练的媒体与政治攻势——与地下出版物和自由欧洲电台(冷战期间,用于逐渐削弱国际共产主义运动)的做法很相似。

Why take this course?

 合成文化

  为什么要学这一课程?

Modern artists don’t start with a blank page or empty canvas. They start with preexisting works.
   现代艺术家不会从一张白纸起步,也不会从一张空空如也的画布起步。他们是从存在的作品起步。

What you’ll learn:
   你将学到什么:

How to analyze—and create—artworks made out of other artworks.
   怎样分析并创造脱胎于其它艺术品的艺术品。


ere are some defining artists of the post-postmodern age: Spike Jonze, whose video for Weezer’s “Buddy Holly” wove the band into an episode of Happy Days; Girl Talk, who turned 322 snippets of recordings into an original album; and Garfield Minus Garfield, a website that erases the eponymous cat from his own comic strip. The creative act is no longer about building something out of nothing but rather building something new out of cultural products that already exist.
  下面这些被定义为后后现代的艺术家:斯派克·琼斯(Spike Jonze)[注1],他为Weezer的《Buddy Holly》拍摄的视频,将该乐队编进《Happy Days》的一集中;Girl Talk[注2],他将322个录音片段制成了一张原创专辑;Garfield Minus Garfield[注3],一个在他自己的连环漫画中去掉加菲猫的网站。创造行为不再是从无到有的建设,而是从已经存在的文化产品中创造新东西。

In this class, we’ll examine the philosophical roots of remix culture and study seminal works like Robert Rauschenberg’s Monogram and Jorge Luis Borges’ Pierre Menard, Author of Don Quixote. And we’ll examine modern-day exemplars from DJ Shadow’s Endtroducing to Auto-Tune the News.
   在本课程中,我们将考察合成文化的哲学根源,研究创新作品,如罗伯特·劳森伯格(Robert Rauschenberg)[注4]的《Monogram》和博尔赫斯(Jorge Luis Borges)[注5]的《Pierre Menard, Author of Don Quixote》。我们还将考察从DJ Shadow[注6]的《Endtroducing》到Auto-Tune the News等现代范例。

Next, we’ll take a look at three sets of technological tools that helped democratize art creation.
   接下来,我们将看看三类有助于艺术创作大众化的技术工具。


Writing tools: From the Gutenberg printing press to Microsoft Word, publishing technology has made it easier to reproduce, copy, and manipulate words.
  书写工具:从古腾堡(Gutenberg)[注7]的印刷机到微软的Word程序,出版技术让再现、复制和处理文字变得更容易了。

Aural tools: Grandmaster Flash’s turntables and crossfader turned records into instruments. Samplers like the E-Mu SP-1200 and the Akai S950 made prerecorded music a manipulatable musical ingredient. Pro Tools and other software programs made professional-quality sound deconstruction available to the average consumer.
   听觉工具:Grandmaster Flash[注8]的转盘和唱平滑转换器将唱片转化为乐器。采样器如E-Mu SP-1200和Akai S950让预录制的乐曲成为可处理的音乐成分。Pro Tools及其他软件程序使得普通消费者也能进行专业品质的声音解构。

Video tools: From reel-to-reel film editing suites to Avid to iMovie, the process of video editing has grown cheaper and easier, as well.
   视频工具:从卷带式影片编辑组件到Avid,再到iMovie,视频编辑越来越便宜,越来越简单。

Finally, students will be asked to create their own manipulations of preexisting works.
   最后,将要求学生创作他们自己对已有作品的加工。

注1:斯派克·琼斯:好莱坞新贵导演,曾执导《傀儡人生》、《改编剧本》等影片。
注2:Girl Talk:美国音乐家,擅长混搭和数字采样。
注3:Garfield Minus Garfield:由丹·沃尔什(Dan Walsh)创作的网络漫画。他重印了连环漫画《加菲猫》,但使用图像处理把加菲猫这个角色从原作移去。
注4:罗伯特·劳森伯格(1925-2008):美国艺术家,战后美国波普艺术的代表人物,发展出“融合绘画”的独特艺术手法。
注5:博尔赫斯(1899-1986):阿根廷著名作家,被誉为“南美洲的卡夫卡”。
注6:DJ Shadow:美国音乐制作人兼创作人,被认为是器乐嘻哈的代表性人物。
注7:古腾堡(1400-1468):德国发明家,西方活字印刷术的发明人。
注8:Grandmaster Flash:美国音乐家,嘻哈音乐的伟大革新者,曾发明变奏搓碟法等多项演奏技术。

Applied Cognition

  应用认知

Why take this course?
   为什么要学这一课程?

You have to know the brain to train the brain.
   你必须了解大脑,方能训练大脑。

What you’ll learn:
   你将学到什么:

How the mind works and how you can make it work for you.
   头脑怎样工作,以及怎样让它为你工作。


ow we think is as important as what we think. The workings of our minds have long been mysterious, but we understand our mental processes much better today than we did 20 years ago. Unfortunately, education hasn’t caught up.
  我们怎样思考与我们思考什么同等重要。我们的头脑活动长期以来都是神秘难懂的,但是相较于20年前,今天我们对心理过程的了解已经强了很多。不幸的是,教育没有同步跟上。

In this course, we’ll get smart on brains, beginning with a sequence on neuro-rhetoric. Ads, political campaigns, and spam have sharpened the art of persuasion and given it a quantitative edge. We’ll read Denis Higgins’ The Art of Writing Advertising and Robert Cialdini’s Influence. We’ll dissect late-night infomercials and Zynga’s games to understand what makes them so compelling.
   在本课程中,我们将让大脑变得更聪明,先从“神经交流学(neuro-rhetoric)”系列开始。广告、政治运动与垃圾邮件已经提高了我们说服的技术,并赋予它数量的优势。我们将阅读丹尼斯·希金斯(Denis Higgins)的《The Art of Writing Advertising》和罗伯特·希尔蒂尼(Robert Cialdini)的《Influence》。我们将仔细研究深夜商业信息广告和zynga的游戏以理解是什么让它们如此引人注目。

Next we’ll turn to decisionmaking. We’ll learn how emotion influences reasoning and how language influences emotion. You’ll read Jonah Lehrer’s How We Decide and Barry Schwartz’s The Paradox of Choice. We’ll study the spread of memes with Facebook’s “in-house sociologist,” Cameron Marlow.
   接着我们将讨论决策制定。我们将学习情感是怎样影响理性,以及语言怎样影响情感。你将读到乔纳·莱赫(Jonah Lehrer)的《How We Decide》和巴里·斯瓦茨(Barry Schwartz)的《The Paradox of Choice》。我们将以Facebook的“内部社会学家”卡梅隆·马洛(Cameron Marlow)为例研究下弥母(meme)[注1]的传播。

Finally, we’ll delve into the fraught topic of brain maintenance. What nutrients affect mental performance? What drugs provide improved cognition? What can you do today to keep your mind healthy? Many of the most celebrated supplements and tools, from ginkgo biloba to the Nintendo DS game Brain Age, are of limited value. Separating science from the snake oil used to promote these enhancements will tap all the critical thinking skills you sharpen in this course.
   最后,我们将深入研究大脑维护的忧伤主题。什么营养素会影响思维能力?什么药物能够提升认知?今天你能做什么来保持精神健康?许多最知名的补给品与工具,从银杏到任天堂的DS游戏《Brain Age》都有其局限性。把科学与用来促进这些提升的万灵油区分开,将挖掘所有你在本课程得到增强的关键性思维技能。

注1:弥母:文化传播的最小单位,是一种流行的、以衍生方式复制传播的互联网文化基因。

 

Writing for New Forms

  新式写作

Why take this course?
   为什么要学这一课程?

You can write a cogent essay, but can you write it in 140 characters or less?
   你可以写篇令人信服的文章,但是你能用140或更少的字符来完成它吗?

What you’ll learn:
   你将学到什么:

How to adapt your message to multiple formats and audiences—human and machine.
   怎样让你的信息适应多种格式和多类受众——人与机器。


riting used to mean arranging words in a particular order to be printed with ink on the cellulosic entrails of a tree. You wrote for people, and you hoped that the marks you made would leave a permanent impression upon the world. Today, writing can refer to anything from posting a one-line status update on Facebook to dashing off a 10,000-word blog entry. Your readers include not just humans but algorithms, and your goal is not immortality but a momentary piercing of the ever-shifting zeitgeist.
  写作过去往往意味着斟词酌句,并蘸着墨水写在树浆上。你为人而写,希望你写成的作品能在世间留下永久的印迹。今天,从Facebook上的一行状态更新到一蹴而就的10000字博客文章,都是写作。你的读者不仅有人,还有算法,你的目标不再是不朽声名,而是对涌动不止的时代潮流的瞬间洞察。

There are more writing opportunities than ever, but they require skills that Strunk and White never dreamed of. This course will teach you how to Photoshop images to create a narrative, edit a 20-second YouTube video, compress your thoughts into 140 characters (or clarify them into a PowerPoint presentation that won’t put your audience to sleep), write a wiki entry that encourages other people to edit and adapt it, and ensure your work goes viral, turning readers into vectors for your ideas.
   写作的机会虽胜于往昔,但是需要的是斯特兰克与怀特[注1]从未梦到的技能。该课程将教你怎样Photoshop图像来叙述故事,怎样编辑20秒的YouTube视频,怎样将你的见解压缩至140个字符内(或者用PowerPoint演示来阐明,这样才不会让你的听众睡着),怎样写wiki条目以鼓励其他人编辑和改编它,以及怎样确保你的作品富有感染力,能让读者欣然接受你的观点。

Technical skills, however, are not enough. Writing successfully requires knowing how to attract niche audiences with depth and detail. To demonstrate this, we’ll contrast The New York Times Magazine’s profile of Yankee pitcher Mariano Rivera with the accompanying Web video of the nearly 1,300 pitches Rivera threw during the 2009 baseball season.
   然而,光有技术上的技能还是不够。成功的写作要求懂得怎样深入细致地吸引住特定受众。为了加以阐明,我们将对比《纽约时报杂志》上扬基队投手马里亚诺·利维拉(Mariano Rivera)的个人资料和2009棒球赛季里利维拉将近1300次投球的相关网站视频。


The role of the writer is also changing. In the age of objectivity, writers kept their personalities out of their work. But now, the author’s identity is paramount; readers have to believe you offer a unique—and trustworthy—perspective. Tone and personality are once again central to writing, not something to be smoothed and scrubbed. We’ll study the work of The Atlantic’s Andrew Sullivan, who built a blog empire with an informal voice that makes readers feel as if they are accessing his unvarnished thoughts; New York Times blogger Andrew Revkin, who encourages reader loyalty by posting long passages from the emails that they send him; and director Kevin Smith, who recounts sex with his wife in lascivious detail to keep his 1.7 million Twitter followers hitting Refresh.
  作者的角色也随之改变。在客观时代里,作者个性在作品中深藏不露。但是现在,作者个性至高无上;读者不得不相信你提供的是独一无二且十足可靠的观点。语气与个性再度成为写作的中心,而不是什么要竭力抹平的东西。我们将研究如下几位的工作:《大西洋月刊》的安德鲁·苏利文(Andrew Sullivan),他建了一个“博客帝国”,其中包含的口语式声音,能让读者感觉仿佛是在接近他质朴无华的思想;《纽约时报》博客作家安德鲁·拉夫金(Andrew Revkin)通过在给读者回信中贴上大段文字来激发他们的忠诚度;而导演凯文·史密斯(Kevin Smith)则极尽挑逗之能事地详述他与妻子的性生活,以此保持他170万推客信徒不断点击刷新。

Writing today also means mastering metatext, the cues and context that determine how, where, and if your words get read. We’ll learn that winning links depends on appealing to the unique tastes of different social networks. Each link will help you attract your most influential audience—the algorithms that determine where your story ends up in Google’s search results. As we optimize our writing for this cyborg readership, we’ll also learn the new tenets of writing well: Be conspicuous, be entertaining, and leave space for others to talk.
   今天的写作还意味着要掌握元文本(metatext)以确定怎样单词能被检索,要掌握线索以确定检索单词的位置,还要掌握语境以确定单词是否能被检索。我们将学习到:要赢得链接,就要挨近各类社交网络的独特品味。每条链接将帮助你吸引到最有影响力的受众——算法决定了你的故事在Google搜索结果中的位置。因为我们要为电子读者优化写作,我们也将学习写好作品的新原则:引人注目、轻松娱乐、留有余地。

注1:斯特兰克与怀特:两人是《风格元素》(1918)的作者,该书介绍了不少写作风格的指南。

 

Waste Studies

  浪费研究

Why take this course?
   为什么要学这一课程?

Waste is the single biggest drag on our productivity—and it’s everywhere.
   浪费最拖我们生产力的后腿,而且浪费到处皆是。

What you’ll learn:
   你将学到什么:

How to become a smarter consumer, investor, and conserver.
   怎样成为更聪明的消费者、投资者和保存者。


hen trying to understand a country’s health, economists have a lot of numbers to pick from: GDP, consumer confidence, the balance of trade. But they could learn more by looking at the total amount of waste produced.
  尝试解读一个国家的健康程度时,经济学家有大量数据可供选择:GDP、消费信心、贸易平衡。但是通过观察浪费总量,他们还会知道更多。

Waste isn’t just garbage (though there’s a lot of that: The US produces 250 million tons of it annually). Each year, we lose billions of dollars in valuable time as we sit in traffic and endless meetings. We spend billions more in health premiums that pay for administrative bloat rather than medical care. High unemployment rates constitute another kind of waste—available labor that isn’t being put to productive economic use.
   浪费不仅仅指垃圾(虽然垃圾确实不少:美国每年产生2.5亿吨)。每年,塞车时的苦等与无穷无尽的会议所浪费的宝贵时间让我们损失数十亿计的美元。我们花在健康保费上的数十亿美元都被臃肿的管理所消耗,没有用到医疗保健上。高失业率则构成了另一种浪费——可用的劳动力没能投入经济生产。

Waste, of course, is a simple fact of nature: It’s baked right into the second law of thermodynamics. Instead of seeking to eliminate it, we need to learn what causes it, how to reduce it, and what purpose it might serve.
   当然,浪费是一种自然的简单事实:这符合热力学第二定律。不用寻求消除浪费,我们需要学习是什么导致浪费,怎样减少浪费,以及浪费可能的意图是什么。

To see how devastating unchecked waste can be, we’ll examine the recent economic collapse. The financial markets were overcome by derivatives that took in billions of dollars without performing any benefit to the overall economy. Those wasteful innovations—like risky subprime mortgage pools—were instrumental in causing the worst economic slump since the Great Depression.
   为了看清楚未加抑制的浪费杀伤力能有多大,我们将观察一下最近的经济崩溃。金融市场上衍生物成为主流,它们吸收了数十亿美金,却对整体经济没有任何益处。那些耗费钱财的革新——像众多的风险性次级抵押贷款——对大萧条以来最糟糕的经济低潮起了推波助澜的作用。

We’ll learn how engineers, industrialists, and economists are finding new ways to reduce waste. “Smart” meters tell people how much power their appliances are consuming; as energy customers become more aware of their consumption, they use less. Companies like GE and Intel are spending billions of dollars to improve the efficiency of their turbines and computer chips.
   我们将学习工程师、实业家和经济学家是怎样寻找新方法来减少浪费的。“聪明的”测量工具告诉人们他们的设备正在消耗多少能量;当能源消费者愈加意识到他们的消费量时,他们就会用得更少。像GE和Intel这样的公司正在花费数十亿美金来提高他们涡轮机和计算机芯片的效率。

Finally, we’ll take a more nuanced look at waste, asking how much we can eliminate and how much is necessary for a healthy economy. Some level of oversupply is required to insure against catastrophe, just as having two kidneys provides a backup in case one fails. And economists have concluded that some level of unemployment—perhaps the cruelest form of waste—is necessary to prevent runaway inflation.
   最后,我们将更微妙地看待浪费,问问我们能消除多少浪费,多少浪费是健康经济所必需的。要求有一定程度的过多供给来确保远离灾难,这就像人有两个肾,一个肾坏了,还能提供备份一样。而且经济学家已经总结出一定比例的失业人数——也许是浪费最残酷的形式——对防止恶性通货膨胀是必要的。


Domestic Tech

  家政技术

Why take this course?
   为什么要学这一课程?

We’ve lost touch with the act of making, repairing, and upgrading physical objects.
   我们已经丧失制作、修理和改进实物的能力。

What you’ll learn:
   你将学到什么:

How to apply hard science and engineering to everyday life.
   怎样将自然科学与工程学应用于日常生活。


n 20th-century high schools, shop and home economics classes were considered easy As—or worse, one-way tickets to unexciting vocations. But we’ve become divorced from the skills those classes imparted. This course reexamines every aspect of home life, from cooking to cabinet repair, through the prism of science.
  在20世纪的高中,车间经济学与家政学课程被认为是很容易的——抑或更差一点,假期变得单调乏味了。但是我们已经与那些课程所传授的技能分道扬镳。该课程擎着科学之光,重新检查家庭生活从烹饪到家具修理的每一方面。

In the 18th century, it was common for curious amateurs to carry out experiments in their home. We’ll study the history, from philosophers John Locke and Benjamin Franklin to mythbusters Kari Byron and Jamie Hyneman. We will explore outfits like DIYbio and Foldit, which are tapping into that same spirit today.
   18世纪时,爱探究的业余爱好者在家里鼓鼓捣捣是稀松平常的事。我们将学习这段历史,从哲学家约翰·洛克(John Locke)[注1]和本杰明·富兰克林(Benjamin Frankin)[注2]到神话破解者凯莉‧拜伦(Kari Byron)[注3]和杰米·海纳曼(Jamie Hyneman)[注4]。我们将探究工具,如DIYbio和Foldit,这些工具今天正在发掘着同样的精神。

The High Tech Home Ec sequence will cover kitchen chemistry and nutrition, providing a better understanding of how science can help you perform the simplest of tasks, like boiling an egg. (If the yolk turns greenish-gray, the iron in it has reacted with the sulfur in the egg white. To arrest this process, don’t overcook, and place the eggs in cold water as soon as they are off the boil.)
   “High Tech Home Ec(高科技家政)”系列将涉及厨房化学与营养学,有助于更好地理解科学怎样帮助完成最简单的任务,如煮蛋。(如果蛋黄变成绿灰色,那是里面的铁与蛋白的硫起了化学反应。为了阻止其发生,不要煮过了,并将蛋煮完后立即放到冷水里。)

The Domestic Shop sequence will demonstrate the astounding range of experiments and projects you can do with household appliances. (No lab fee—the lab is your home and the world around you.)
   “Domestic Shop(家庭车间)”系列将演示令人震惊的一系列可施之于家用电器的实验与项目。(不用实验室费用——你的家和身边的世界就是实验室。)

注1:约翰·洛克(1632-1704):英国哲学家、经验主义的开创人。
注2:本杰明·富兰克林(1706-1790):美国伟大的科学家和发明家,著名政治家、哲学家,资本主义精视秀《MythBusters》的角色闻名。
注4:杰米·海纳曼:美国特技专家,以其在发现频道的电视秀《神最完美的代表。
注3:凯莉·拜伦:美国电视主持人、艺术家,以在发现频道的电MythBusters》的合作主持闻名。

标签:大学 技能
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2010-10-08 23:25 编辑:kuaileyingyu
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