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考研英语翻译之名词性从句

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一、主语从句

(一)以what, whatever, whoever, whether, when, where, how, why等词引导的主语从句,在翻译的时候,一般可以按照英语原文顺序来翻译。

What he told me was only half-truth.

他告诉我的只是些半真半假的东西而已。

Whatever is worth doing should be done well.

任何值得做的事情都应该做好。

Whether he comes or not makes no difference.

他来不来都没有关系。

When we can begin the expedition is still a question.

我们何时才能开始这次考察仍然是悬而未决。

How he is going to do it is a mystery.

他准备怎么做这个事情是个迷。

(二)用it作形式主语的主语从句,可以把主语从句放到汉语句子最前面去翻译。为了强调起见,it一般可以译出来;如果不需要强调,it也可以不译出来。

It doesn’t make much difference whether he attends the meeting or not.

他参加不参加会议没有多大关系。(It没有翻译)

It seemed inconceivable that the pilot could have survived the crash.

驾驶员在飞机坠毁之后,竟然还能活着,这看来是不可想象的。(It翻译为“这”)

有时候,如果主语从句仍然按照英语原来的顺序翻译的话,it一般不需要译出来。在汉语译文的开始,一般可以用“...的是,...”这样的结构来翻译。

It is strange that she should have failed to see her own shortcomings.

真奇怪,她竟然没有看出自己的缺点。(It不用翻译,还可以用“奇怪的是...”这样的结构来翻译)

二、宾语从句

(一)用that, what, how, when, which, why, whether, if 等引起的宾语从句,翻译成汉语的时候,一般不需要改变它在原句中的顺序。

I told him that because of the last condition, I’d have to turn it down.

我告诉他,由于那最后一个条件,我只得谢绝。

Can you hear what I say?

你听得到我所讲的吗?

I don’t know that he swam across the river.

我不知道他游过了那条河。

I don’t know how he swam across the river.

我不知道他是怎么游过那条河的。

He has informed me when they are to discuss my proposal.

他已经通知我他们将在什么时候谈论我的建议。

有时可加“说”字,再接下去翻译译英语原文宾语从句的内容。

Smith replied that he was sorry.

斯密斯回答说,他感到遗憾。

He would remind people again that it was decided not only by himself but by lots of others.

他再三提醒大家说,决定这件事的不只是他一个人,还有其他许多人。

(二)用it 作形式宾语的句子,在翻译的时候,that所引导的宾语从句一般可按英语原文顺序翻译;it有时候可以不用翻译。

I made it clear to them that they must hand in their papers before 10 o’clock in the morning.

我向他们讲清楚了的,他们必须在上午十时前交卷。(it没有翻译)

I heard it said that he had gone abroad.

听说他已经出国了。(it没有翻译)

但有时候,也可以在译文中将that引导的宾语从句提前到句子最前面翻译。

I regard it as an honor that I am chosen to attend the meeting.

我被选参加会议,感到光荣。(it没有翻译)

We consider it absolutely necessary that we should open our door to the outside world.

打开国门,实行开放,我们认为这是绝对必要的。(it翻译为“这”)

三、表语从句

It seems that it is going to snow.

看起来要下雪了。

That is why Jack got scolded.

这就是杰克受到训斥的原因。

The question remains whether we can win the majority of the people.

问题是我们能否赢得大多数人民群众的支持。

His view of the press was that the reporters were either for him or against him.

他对新闻界的看法是,记者们不是支持他,就是反对他。

四、同位语从句

能接同位语从句的名词主要有:belief(相信),fact(事实),hope(希望), idea(想法,观点),doubt(怀疑),news(新闻,消息),rumor(传闻),conclusion(结论),evidence(证据),suggestion(建议),problem(问题),order(命令),answer(回答),decision(决定),discovery(发现),explanation(解释),information(消息),knowledge(知识),law(法律),opinion(意见,观点),truth(真理,事实),promise(承诺),report(报告),thought(思想),statement(声明),rule(规定),possibility(可能)等。

(一)一般来说,同位语从句可以直接翻译在主句后面。

He expressed the hope that he would come over to visit China again.

他表示希望再到中国来访问。

There is a possibility that he is a spy.

有可能他是一个间谍。

(二)有时候在翻译同位语从句时,可以将其放在所修饰的名词前面,相当于前置的修饰语,但不一定使用定语的标志词“的”。这种情况下,同位语从句都是比较简单。

We know the fact that bodies possess weight.

我们都知道物体具有重量这一事实。

The rumor that he was arrested was unfounded.

关于他被捕的传闻是没有根据的。

(三)增加“即”(或者“以为”)这样的词来连接,或用冒号、破折号直接分开主句和同位语从句。

But this does not in any way alter the fact that they are now, from a practical point of view, irrational.

但这却丝毫改变不了这样一个事实,即从实用的观点来看,他们今天仍是不合理的。

We have reached the conclusion that practice is the criterion for testing truth.

我们已经得出这样的结论:实践是检验真理的标准。

Not long ago, the scientists made an exciting discovery that this waste material could be turned into plastics.

不久前,科学家们获得一个令人振奋的发现——可以把这种废物变成塑料。

 

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2010-09-19 15:58 编辑:juliatt
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