关键词: 宗教战争, 性别角色
Lesson plan: Religious warfare, gender roles
主题: 尽管伊朗的领袖们已经开始使用新媒体向外界传达信息，但国内的教育还是从书本开始。根据一项研究结论，伊朗教科书教导7年级的学生：“每个穆斯林青年必须随时准备跟那些与神为敌的人战斗到底”。 并且法律规定每个伊朗男性到19岁时都要服满18个月的兵役。自由之家2008年发布的一份研究报告称：伊朗的学生不仅要接受伊斯兰至高无上的信条，还要遵从一些政治上的不平等：比如 “有些人因为他们的身份，性别，以及思考方式，理所当然就是上等公民”，而妇女则被描述成干家务事的“二等公民”。
Subject matter: Iranian leaders may have embraced new mediato share political messages with the world, but at home, indoctrination stillstarts in print. According to one study, Iranian textbooks teach seventhgraders that "every Muslim youth must strike fear in the hearts of the enemiesof God and their people through combat-readiness and skillful target shooting."Iranian males are obliged by lawto perform 18 months of military service at age 19. The Islamic Republic, a 2008 Freedom Housestudy reports,encourages students to embrace Islamic supremacy and an unequal politicalsystem in which "some individuals are born first-class citizens, due to theiridentity, gender, and way of thinking." Women, for example, are portrayed as"second class citizens," depicted mainly in family situations and at home.
“不管男女老少，每个人都有义务参加自卫性质的杰哈德，所有人都必须尽自己的全力去战斗或帮助我们的战士。” ------- 某七年级课本，伊斯兰宗教与文化学习
Primary source: "Defensive jihad is incumbent uponevery one, the young and the old, men and women, everyone, absolutely everyone,must take part in this sacred battle, fight to the best of his or her abilitiesor assist our fighters." -- from a seventh grade Islamic culture and religious studies textbook
(China)Subject matter: Chinese history textbooks, much likethe country's hesitantacceptance of itself as a world power, are full of contradictions. China, inthe eyes of millions of its students, is both meekly innocent and unmatched inmilitary power, simultaneously modest and boastful. Chinesetextbooks ignore the invasion of Tibet in 1950 and the 1979 Sino-VietnameseWar, launched by China in response to Vietnam's occupation of Cambodia, andteach that China has only fought wars in self-defense. They also gloss over ChairmanMao Zedong's 1958 to 1961 Great Leap Forward, which resulted in mass famine and 30million deaths. One exampleof Chinese textbookchutzpah can be found in the chapters on World War II, known in sometextbooks as "the Anti-Japanese War." The Japanese capture of the city ofNanjing -- often known as the "Rapeof Nanjing," when up to 300,000 people were killed by Japanese troops -- isdescribed in one Chinese textbook as "the most horrible [event] in world[history]." (To be fair, Japanese textbooks arelittle better; they tend to skim over the event, calling it an "incident," "massacre," or "massacre incident.") The Chinese versionof history has it that Japan was defeated in the war because of Chineseresistance, not because of the U.S. entry into the war. Primary source: "The fundamental reason for the victory[in World War II] is that the Chinese Communist Party became the core powerthat united the nation" -- from a widelyused Chinese history textbook
Lesson plan: Enemies of the faith
Subject matter: After the 9/11 attacks -- in which 15 of the19 hijackers were Saudi -- King Abdullah made reform of Saudi textbooks, which had been replete with references to Christians,communists, Zionists, and Western "nonbelievers" as enemies of Muslims, apriority. Nine years later, progress has been slow. In 2006, Riyadhpromised to remove "all intolerant passages," but some sources say children arestill learning from texts that promote anti-Semitism and jihad. Once again,Saudi Arabia has claimed that textbooks and programs used both in the kingdomand by schools funded by Saudi Arabia elsewhere "will be completely overhauledover the next three years." Saudi schools in countries including the UnitedStates, Britain, France, Germany, and Turkey all use similar textbooks.
Primary source:"Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words (Islam, hellfire): Every religion other than______________ is false. Whoever dies outside of Islam enters ____________."-- from a first-grade textbook
"As cited in Ibn Abbas: The apes are Jews,the people of the Sabbath; while the swine are the Christians, the infidels ofthe communion of Jesus" -- from an eighth-gradetextbook on monotheism and jurisprudence
Lesson plan: Culture Wars 101
Subject matter: The Texas Board of Education ignited aninternational firestorm last spring when members approved a controversialnew social studies curriculum. The new standards skew hard to the right --championing American capitalism throughout and suggesting religious intentionson the part of the founding fathers.
Some of themost notable arguments were over language surrounding U.S. imperialism (now known as "expansionism") andbirth control pioneer Margaret Sanger as a promoter of "eugenics," and anamendment to teachers that students be instructed to "describe the causes andkey organizations and individuals of the conservative resurgence of the 1980sand 1990s, including Phyllis Schlafly, the Contract with America, the HeritageFoundation, the Moral Majority and the National Rifle Association." The boardeven recommendedthat Thomas Jefferson, creator of the expression "separation of church andstate" be excluded from a list of world thinkers who inspired Enlightenment-erarevolutions. And, in a salute to Democrats, "Bill Clinton's impeachment" will joinWatergate in lessons on "political scandals."
Thecurriculum standards are reviewed every decade and serve as a template fortextbook publishers. Texas's 4.8 million public school students make the stateone of the largestmarkets for textbooks and a determinant of what the rest of the country'sschoolchildren will study, with national publishers often tailoring their textsto Texas standards.
虽然此项课程设置还未实施，但是有些地方已经露出马脚------新闻周刊最近披露了一些德克萨斯教材的练习题，比如“请解释为何阿拉伯国家拒绝承认以色列导致中东地区长期冲突” 以及 “评价一下国际组织暗地里破坏美国主权的行为”
Primary source: The new curriculum hasn't hittextbooks yet, but pop quizzes are expected to have a slightlydifferent look -- Newsweek recentlypublished new study exercises that the Texas school board is likely to adopt: "Explain how Arab rejection of theState of Israel has led to ongoing conflict." And "Evaluate efforts by global organizationsto undermine U.S. sovereignty.
Lesson plan: Buddy Stalin
主题: 斯大林统治时期，超过两千万俄罗斯人丧生，因此很难有什么正面的评价，然而，今日的俄罗斯却正在努力美化这位暴君。 在普京和一些狂热分子的授意下，俄国开始对在校学生进行所谓的“正面历史宣传”。
Subjectmatter: It can't beeasy to put a positive spin on Stalin, under whose leadership more than 20million Russians lost their lives. But that's what's being attempted in Russia today.Encouraged by wildernessenthusiast and former KGB agent Vladimir Putin, the country's curriculum isengaging in a re-Stalinizing process called "positivehistory." Aleksandr Filippov, the author of a new Kremlin-approved textbooktold the Times, "It is wrongto write a textbook that will fill the children who learn from it with horrorand disgust about their past and their people."
His book devotes83 pages to Joseph Stalin's industrialization plans, but only one paragraph tothe Great Famine of 1932 to 1933 in which millions starved as a result of deeply flawed agricultural policy. The book alsominimizes the role played by the Soviet Union's allies during Word War II,saying that they "limited themselves mainly to supplying arms, materials andprovisions to the USSR."
Primary source: "[Stalin] acted entirely rationally -- as the guardian of a system, as a consistent support of reshaping the country into an industrialized state" -- from A History of Russia, 1900-1945
2010-09-13 18:04 编辑：kuaileyingyu