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新托福阅读缺口各题型失分点总结

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【前言】
新托福考试阅读大部分取材于欧美大专院校课上所接触到得文章,文体涵盖的范围也比较广泛:包括议论文,记叙文,历史传记,社会科学以及商业技术等。在托福考试中,一篇文章后会有12-14道不等的题目需要考生去回答。这些题目所涵盖的题型和回答要点也因文章的内容不同而有所差异。考生在考试的过程中,往往会出现对文章理解不到位或时间紧迫而造成的低分现象。但总体来说,拿捏好阅读的题型,攻克其失分的关键,才是阅读制胜的关键。

下面我们就从托福阅读的题型分类来一一找出易丢分的点以及攻克的关键

题型一:词汇题

考察要点:词汇题通常考察考生是否能在上下文环境中较好地猜测到单词的含义,主要考察考生对于段落情境的理解以及对生单词同义词的把握。

失分点:①未完全理解上下文含义;② 错选同义词或近义词;③ 看不懂相关选项的含义

例题:
Trends in clothing fashions are often engineered by clothing designers, advertisers, and the media to create a particular “look”. The “grunge” look is an example of a heavily promoted fashion. Fashions are more universally subscribed to than fads. Wearing athletic shoes as casual attire is a good example of a universal fashion.

 Glossary:
Grunge: One that is dirty, inferior, obnoxious, or boring.
The words subscribed to in the passage is closest in meaning to
A: advertised
B: donated to
C: followed
D: led

此题正确答案为C,很多学生容易错选为B,那么就犯了上述失分点中的第二个错误,此处donate虽然与subscribe相近,但在此处语境不对。

题型二:关系指代题

考察要点:主要考察某一个代词或某一个句子在文章所指示的含义,所指内容通常为考察点上文所引出的内容。

失分点:①未看懂文章内容,就近指代;②将it错看成形式主语;③ 按语境理解而不考虑语法意义。

例题:
A study of elderly men and women in New Zealand found that television can actually serve as a companion by assuming “the role of social contact with the wider world.” Reducing “feeling of isolation and loneliness because it directs viewers” attention away from themselves. Thus television’s replacement voices can provide comfort because they distract from a focus on being alone.
The word it in the passage refers to

A: companion
B: isolation
C: loneliness
D: television

此题正确答案为D,很多考生容易错选为A,犯了上述失分点中的第三个错误,语境正确,但语法错误。

题型三:措辞题

考察要点:所谓措辞题也叫改写题,顾名思义,即在原有的句子基础之上,用自己的话语将文章中涉及到得内容复述一遍,在复述的过程中,考生需要注意一定不要偏离了句子的主题,不能完全照搬原来的句子。此类题型在托福阅读考试中相对重要,每篇文章可能要涉及到2-3道类似的题目

失分点:①改变句子原意;②随意增减原文信息;③与原文信息相反;④省略重要信息内容

例题:
Smart marketers should be less concerned with whether U.S. and European consumers are alike and more concerned with monitoring the variety of factors that account for potential similarities and differences. Attention to the dynamic nature of those factors will produce opportunities for the alert markerter.
Which sentence below best expresses the essential information in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

A: a marketer who is not so smart should be more concerned with the difference of eating habits between U.S. and European consumers and less concerned with monitoring the variety of factors that account for potential similarities and differences.

B: It is not important whether U.S. and European consumers have a similar eating habit. It is the potential similarities and differences that people should be more concerned with.

C: Marketers should focus on the factors that account for differences rather than the differences themselves.

D: Monitoring the variety of foods could explain the potential similarities and differences.

此题正确答案为C,容易误选的选项为D,D的错误点在于使用了variety,并且和food连在一起,省略factor改变了句子的原意。犯了上述失分点中的第一个错误。

题型四:插入题型

考查要点:插入题型通常会出现在文章的最后几道题目当中,但题目所在的段落却未必是结尾的几段,所以考生在回答这一类问题时,不要忽略了没有题目分配的段落,而是要着眼于全篇,只有充分理解题意之后,回答这类问题才会完善。

失分点:①未读完文章即鲁莽选择;②忽略相关连接词所具有的指示作用;

例题:
Look at the four squares, A, B, C, D, which indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage? Where would the sentence best fit?
In addition, human beings require the give and take of actual interaction.
The value of these replacement voices should not be oversold. For one thing, almost everyone agrees that too much TV does not one any good and may cause much harm.
A Many studies show that excessive TV watching increases violent behavior, especially in children, and can cause, rather than ease, other antisocial behaviors and depression.

B Steven Pinker, an expert in children’s language acquisition, warns that children cannot develop language properly by watching television.

C They need to interact with actual speakers who respond directly to their specific needs.

D Replacement voices are not real voices and in the end can do only limited good.
Where would the sentence best fit?

此题正确答案为C,注意插入句中的interaction 和 C 句中所提到的interact 的意思的重复.

题型五:事实细节题

考查要点:事实细节题即文章中已经明确出现过或明确指代过的内容,在题目当中再次出现,主要考察考生对文章当中出现的数据,描述和说明等内容是否留意。很多考生认为事实细节题会相对容易找出正确答案,可以肯定的是细节题关系到对文章的整体认知,相反,答错题目也正好说明了对文章的整体把握还不到位。

失分点:①理解偏差,导致对细节理解不到位;②无法找全衔接点;③表达信息不正确;④ 使用了文章内容,但与文章主题无关

例题:
People’s eating habits are strongly influenced by a number of factors besides taste. Cultural values, demographic characteristics, personal finances, and concern about the environment all help determine what you eat. Furthermore, advances in technology, laws and competition are factors in what foods are available to you. To the extent that U.S. and European consumers are influenced similarly by these factors, you would expect and, indeed, would find their eating habits to be remarkably similar. However, because the relative influence of many of these variables differs on the two sides of the Atlantic, U.S. diners and Europeans often find themselves eating different things.

One of the most significant factors that appears to account for differences is the variation in social values. Consumers in the United States, for example, have been interested in the health and fitmess aspects of their food for some time. This interest has resulted in a deluge of diet and other types of “lite” food on U.S. grocery shelves. European consumers, however, are just beginning to get interested in diet and “lite” foods. A recent study found both U.S. and European consumers primarily interested in the fat content of foods. After this commonality, however, the concerns of the two groups in the fat content of foods. After this commonality, however, the concerns of the two groups diverged. Europeans want (in descending order) freshness, vitamin and mineral content, and nutritional value while Americans look for foods low in salt, cholesterol, and sugar.

Glossary:
Upheaval: a big change in society or in family like which causes a lot of trouble, confusion, and worry in people’s lives
According to paragraph 2, which of the following statements is true?
A: Both U.S. and European consumers are not interested in the fat content of foods.
B: U.S. consumers are more interested in diet and other “lite” food.
C: Europeans do not care about freshness, vitamin and nutritional value.
D: Europeans care about foods low in salt, cholesterol, and sugar.

此题正确答案为B,其他选项全部与内容相反

题型六:否定题

考察要点:否定题相对简单,主要是对文章中未曾出现过的事实内容进行排除,通常情况下,否定题都是混合在事实题里面,作为干扰项

失分点:①找不到段落关键词;②推理不正确,找不到隐含意义

题型七:推断题

考查要点:掌握推断技巧并非易事,所谓推断是指文中包含推断所需信息,但并未直接陈述出来,需要考生从已知信息中推断得出。题干中常出现的词有:implied, inferred, likely, 或probably. 为了更好地推断,考生一定要注意日期和数字。一些关键词在做题中也非常有用,比如表示多少的副词many, some, much of, several, a few, most…; 情态动词 may, can ,could…; 表示过去的used to be, were, at one time , previously; 表示不是唯一的 not only, not exclusively.

失分点:①忽略原文中的数字和日期等相关线索;②按个人直觉主观臆断;

例题:
Given the widespread belief that employment during adolescence is supposed to be character-building, it no doubt will come as a surprise that working at a part-time job diminishes student’ engagement in school and increases their drug and alcohol use. But studies of how student workers actually spend their time on the job suggest that the real surprise is that we’ve held on to the myth of the benefits of adolescent work experience for as long as we have.

Which of the following can be inferred from the paragraph?
A: The author counters the myth that working builds character.
B: The author agrees with the belief that working at a part-time job increases students’ engagement in school.
C: It is surprised that students’ working does not benefit the society.
D: The author is surprised to find that students’ working increases their use of drug and alcohol.

此题正确答案为A,考生容易错选为C,选项陈述了毒品和酒精对社会不好,但并不是原文所要表达的中心思想,犯了上述失分点中的第二个错误。

题型八:主要观点题

考察要点:主要观点题相对来说是所有题型当中较难的一种,需要注意的一点是,此题型需要考生总结文章中的主要观点而非次要观点,有时会以表格的形式出现在考试中

失分点:① 未分清主次结构;②忽略文章中的修辞方式;③忽略或不明白各个段落的主旨句;④混淆真实和错误的信息;

例题:
Glossary:
Pruning: making something smaller, shorter, or cheaper by cutting out parts of it that are not needed
Wispy: thin and growing in small, untidy bunches
Etched: imprinted, stamped
An introductory sentence for a belief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. The question is worth 2 points.
The brain begins working long before it is finished. And the same process drives the explosion of learning.
Answer Choice
1 Neurons are transmitting signals in certain fashion.
2 Soon after birth, the brain produces trillions of connections, then eliminates those it rarely uses.
3 Microscopic connections lend the growing brain exception flexibility and resilience.
4 By age ten, synapses in the brain are at their highest level.
5 Repeated experiences create circuits in the brain , resulting in speech and other “behavioral mileposts”.
6 Parents instinctively speak in a high-pitched voice that helps babies learn language.

此题正确答案为2,5,6。1的错误为:文章没有提到神经传递信息的形式;3的错误为:文中根本没有提到;4的错误为:应该是by age ten

题型九:信息题

考察要点:文章的结构是作者为完成某一目的而表达的主要思想和信息。搞清楚文章的结构是阅读中一个重要的技能;它能加深对你文章的理解,有助于你记住文章的内容。托福的阅读文章结构可分为:比较或对比事物及观点,描述事情不同部分,提出不同论证。考试要求你按种类,范畴组织全文信息。此类问题是与主题思想有关的细节题:给你一个分类表格,要求哦求你从多个选项中找出几个正确答案并将它们归类,放入合适的表格中,答题分类属表格题。正确答案代表文中的主要观点和重要的支持信息。

失分点:①主观选择文章出现的词汇,但实际上与文章并无关系;②对文章中没有出现的词汇认为必错。

例题:
Fashions and fads, types of collective group behavior, are distinct from one another in terms of their duration, their predictability, and the number of people involved. Each type follows a five-stage process of development.

A fashion is a temporary trend in behavior or appearance that is followed by a relatively large number of people. Although the word fashion often refers to a style of dress, there are fashions in music, art, and literature as well, Trends in clothing fashions are often engineered by clothing designers, advertisers, and the media to create a particular “look.” The “grunge” look is an example of a heavily promoted fashion. Fashions are more universally subscribed to than fads. Wearing athletic shoes as casual attire is a good example of a universal fashion.

Select the appropriate sentences from the answer choices and match them to the type of group behavior that they describe. Two of the answer choices will NOT be used. This question is worth 3 points.

Answer Choices Types of Collective Group Behavior
1 Fashions are popular but temporary trend. Fashion
2 Fads are adopted by smaller group pf people. 
3 Fads serve as identity maker for a larger number of people. 
4 Fashions are short-lived, less predictable and less influenced. 
5 Those who prefer to be conventional often take fads.
6 Fashions are more lasting and followed by a large number of people.
7 Fads have shorter duration than fashions. 
8 Fashions are harmless and have no long-range effects. 
9 A fashion is a style of clothing and a way of behavior.

此题正确答案为:12469

题型十:修辞题

题型分析:顾名思义,即作者采用举例,说明,解释等方法,对文章的某一内容进行进一步的说明,题目会考察学生为什么某个句子会使用某些词。

失分点:①答案中使用的段落词汇与问题无关;②与文中所提供的信息不符

例题:
In the U.S. alone, each week some 77,000 newbrns begin the miraculous process of wiring their brains for a lifetime of learning. If parents and policymakers don’t pay attention to the conditions under which this delicate process takes place, we will all suffer the consequences eventually.

Why does the author mention 77,000 newborns?
A: to state that there is a certain number of newborns each week.
B: to illustrate that it is important for parents and government officials to pay attention to the crucial process.
C: to prove how important these babies are.
D: to explain how important the brain is and parents and government officials should pay attention to it.

此题正确答案是B,考生容易错选为D,大脑的确重要, 但了解并重视它的过程对于其开发更加重要.

 

 

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2010-09-03 16:02 编辑:juliatt
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