失分点：①未完全理解上下文含义；② 错选同义词或近义词；③ 看不懂相关选项的含义
Trends in clothing fashions are often engineered by clothing designers, advertisers, and the media to create a particular “look”. The “grunge” look is an example of a heavily promoted fashion. Fashions are more universally subscribed to than fads. Wearing athletic shoes as casual attire is a good example of a universal fashion.
Grunge: One that is dirty, inferior, obnoxious, or boring.
The words subscribed to in the passage is closest in meaning to
B: donated to
A study of elderly men and women in New Zealand found that television can actually serve as a companion by assuming “the role of social contact with the wider world.” Reducing “feeling of isolation and loneliness because it directs viewers” attention away from themselves. Thus television’s replacement voices can provide comfort because they distract from a focus on being alone.
The word it in the passage refers to
Smart marketers should be less concerned with whether U.S. and European consumers are alike and more concerned with monitoring the variety of factors that account for potential similarities and differences. Attention to the dynamic nature of those factors will produce opportunities for the alert markerter.
Which sentence below best expresses the essential information in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
A: a marketer who is not so smart should be more concerned with the difference of eating habits between U.S. and European consumers and less concerned with monitoring the variety of factors that account for potential similarities and differences.
B: It is not important whether U.S. and European consumers have a similar eating habit. It is the potential similarities and differences that people should be more concerned with.
C: Marketers should focus on the factors that account for differences rather than the differences themselves.
D: Monitoring the variety of foods could explain the potential similarities and differences.
Look at the four squares, A, B, C, D, which indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage? Where would the sentence best fit?
In addition, human beings require the give and take of actual interaction.
The value of these replacement voices should not be oversold. For one thing, almost everyone agrees that too much TV does not one any good and may cause much harm.
A Many studies show that excessive TV watching increases violent behavior, especially in children, and can cause, rather than ease, other antisocial behaviors and depression.
B Steven Pinker, an expert in children’s language acquisition, warns that children cannot develop language properly by watching television.
C They need to interact with actual speakers who respond directly to their specific needs.
D Replacement voices are not real voices and in the end can do only limited good.
Where would the sentence best fit?
此题正确答案为C，注意插入句中的interaction 和 C 句中所提到的interact 的意思的重复.
People’s eating habits are strongly influenced by a number of factors besides taste. Cultural values, demographic characteristics, personal finances, and concern about the environment all help determine what you eat. Furthermore, advances in technology, laws and competition are factors in what foods are available to you. To the extent that U.S. and European consumers are influenced similarly by these factors, you would expect and, indeed, would find their eating habits to be remarkably similar. However, because the relative influence of many of these variables differs on the two sides of the Atlantic, U.S. diners and Europeans often find themselves eating different things.
One of the most significant factors that appears to account for differences is the variation in social values. Consumers in the United States, for example, have been interested in the health and fitmess aspects of their food for some time. This interest has resulted in a deluge of diet and other types of “lite” food on U.S. grocery shelves. European consumers, however, are just beginning to get interested in diet and “lite” foods. A recent study found both U.S. and European consumers primarily interested in the fat content of foods. After this commonality, however, the concerns of the two groups in the fat content of foods. After this commonality, however, the concerns of the two groups diverged. Europeans want (in descending order) freshness, vitamin and mineral content, and nutritional value while Americans look for foods low in salt, cholesterol, and sugar.
Upheaval: a big change in society or in family like which causes a lot of trouble, confusion, and worry in people’s lives
According to paragraph 2, which of the following statements is true?
A: Both U.S. and European consumers are not interested in the fat content of foods.
B: U.S. consumers are more interested in diet and other “lite” food.
C: Europeans do not care about freshness, vitamin and nutritional value.
D: Europeans care about foods low in salt, cholesterol, and sugar.
考查要点：掌握推断技巧并非易事，所谓推断是指文中包含推断所需信息，但并未直接陈述出来，需要考生从已知信息中推断得出。题干中常出现的词有：implied, inferred, likely, 或probably. 为了更好地推断，考生一定要注意日期和数字。一些关键词在做题中也非常有用，比如表示多少的副词many, some, much of, several, a few, most…; 情态动词 may, can ,could…; 表示过去的used to be, were, at one time , previously; 表示不是唯一的 not only, not exclusively.
Given the widespread belief that employment during adolescence is supposed to be character-building, it no doubt will come as a surprise that working at a part-time job diminishes student’ engagement in school and increases their drug and alcohol use. But studies of how student workers actually spend their time on the job suggest that the real surprise is that we’ve held on to the myth of the benefits of adolescent work experience for as long as we have.
Which of the following can be inferred from the paragraph?
A: The author counters the myth that working builds character.
B: The author agrees with the belief that working at a part-time job increases students’ engagement in school.
C: It is surprised that students’ working does not benefit the society.
D: The author is surprised to find that students’ working increases their use of drug and alcohol.
Pruning: making something smaller, shorter, or cheaper by cutting out parts of it that are not needed
Wispy: thin and growing in small, untidy bunches
Etched: imprinted, stamped
An introductory sentence for a belief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. The question is worth 2 points.
The brain begins working long before it is finished. And the same process drives the explosion of learning.
1 Neurons are transmitting signals in certain fashion.
2 Soon after birth, the brain produces trillions of connections, then eliminates those it rarely uses.
3 Microscopic connections lend the growing brain exception flexibility and resilience.
4 By age ten, synapses in the brain are at their highest level.
5 Repeated experiences create circuits in the brain , resulting in speech and other “behavioral mileposts”.
6 Parents instinctively speak in a high-pitched voice that helps babies learn language.
此题正确答案为2，5，6。1的错误为：文章没有提到神经传递信息的形式；3的错误为：文中根本没有提到；4的错误为：应该是by age ten
Fashions and fads, types of collective group behavior, are distinct from one another in terms of their duration, their predictability, and the number of people involved. Each type follows a five-stage process of development.
A fashion is a temporary trend in behavior or appearance that is followed by a relatively large number of people. Although the word fashion often refers to a style of dress, there are fashions in music, art, and literature as well, Trends in clothing fashions are often engineered by clothing designers, advertisers, and the media to create a particular “look.” The “grunge” look is an example of a heavily promoted fashion. Fashions are more universally subscribed to than fads. Wearing athletic shoes as casual attire is a good example of a universal fashion.
Select the appropriate sentences from the answer choices and match them to the type of group behavior that they describe. Two of the answer choices will NOT be used. This question is worth 3 points.
Answer Choices Types of Collective Group Behavior
1 Fashions are popular but temporary trend. Fashion
2 Fads are adopted by smaller group pf people.
3 Fads serve as identity maker for a larger number of people.
4 Fashions are short-lived, less predictable and less influenced.
5 Those who prefer to be conventional often take fads.
6 Fashions are more lasting and followed by a large number of people.
7 Fads have shorter duration than fashions.
8 Fashions are harmless and have no long-range effects.
9 A fashion is a style of clothing and a way of behavior.
In the U.S. alone, each week some 77,000 newbrns begin the miraculous process of wiring their brains for a lifetime of learning. If parents and policymakers don’t pay attention to the conditions under which this delicate process takes place, we will all suffer the consequences eventually.
Why does the author mention 77,000 newborns?
A: to state that there is a certain number of newborns each week.
B: to illustrate that it is important for parents and government officials to pay attention to the crucial process.
C: to prove how important these babies are.
D: to explain how important the brain is and parents and government officials should pay attention to it.