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新托福阅读的“同义改写”问题

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新托福阅读的一个重要特点之一就是“同义改写(主要针对动词和形容词)”。

首先,“同义改写”会影响到“定位”的准确与速度。新托福阅读十类题型中的事实信息题、列举排除题、推理题以及填表题都涉及到了原文定位的问题。定位的准确与速度也是影响阅读分数的一个重要因素。定位的时候,首先确定大区间,也就是题干中给我们具体的指示“According to paragraph X" ,"In paragraph X" 定位具体的段落,或是根据“阅读文章行文顺序与行文顺序基本一致”的特点进行大区间的定位;下一步就是确定题干中的关键词。但是,回原文中定位的时候,有时并不一定可以找到一模一样的“关键词”,因为托福阅读在定位时往往会设置一个同义改写。比如例一这道事实信息题,我们首先定位到了第三段,然后寻找题干中的关键词是“Whig Party’s view of the role of government?(Whig 政党关于政府职能的观点)”,但是定位时,你会发现原文中所对应的出处是"The government’s responsibility was to....。.(政府的职责是..。.)" 也就是说你不能期待定位时一定会从原文中找到一模一样的“关键词”,这个定位过程中很有可能出现同义改写的状况。

其次,定位完成后,选项部分可能又会进行一个同义改写。比如例一原文中的“to provide a well-regulated economy that guaranteed opportunity for citizens of ability”所对应的正确选项换了个说法,被改写成了“To maintain an economy that allowed all capable citizens to benefit”。所以在选择选项的时候,你也不能期待选项一定是原文中一模一样的表达。

同义改写的设置不仅仅是在托福阅读中,听力中也涉及到了同样的问题,也就是说正确的选项并不一定是你所到的原词原句,基本上都会设置同义改写来确定你是否真的听懂了。例二的同义改写现象请同学们自己做出分析。

例一:According to paragraph 3,which of the following describes the Whig Party’s view of the role of government?

A.To regulate the continuing conflict

B.To restrict the changes brought about by the market

C.To maintain an economy that allowed all capable citizens to benefit

D.To reduce the emphasis on economic development

Paragraph 3 : Whigs,on the other hand,were more comfortable with the market.For them,commerce and economic development agents of civilization.Nor did the Whigs envision any conflict in society between farers and workers on the one hand and businesspeople and bankers on the other.Economic growth would benefit everyone by raising national income and expanding opportunity.The government’s responsibility was to provide a well-regulated economy that guaranteed opportunity for citizens of ability。

例二:According to paragraph 3, the loss of natural vegetation has which of the following consequences for soil?

A.Increased stony content

B.Reduced water absorption

C.Increased numbers of spaces in the soil

D.Reduced water runoff

Paragraph 3: Even in the areas that retain a soil cover, the reduction of vegetation typically results in the loss of the soil's ability to absorb substantial quantities of water. The impact of raindrops on the loose soil tends to transfer fine clay particles into the tiniest soil spaces, sealing them and producing a surface that allows very little water penetration. Water absorption is greatly reduced; consequently runoff is increased, resulting in accelerated erosion rates. The gradual drying of the soil caused by its diminished ability to absorb water results in the further loss of vegetation, so that a cycle of progressive surface deterioration is established。

 

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2010-09-03 15:26 编辑:juliatt
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