· 判断标志：此类文章一般会在第一段提出一个“老观点” 。此处的“老观点”是指过去的、传统、大家一致公认的观点。而且通常GMAT提出老观点的时候会给予一些语言的提示，例如：it was traditionally assumed…it was once / usually believed… Many ××believed that…Many ××have argued… It was frequently assumed that…the common belief It was universally accepted that…
· 接下去文章一般会提出新观点，通常会在第一段中部或第二段开头，而且也会有一些语言提示： 例如， But， Yet，However 或用时间状语表示强对比（例如 in the 1960‘s 和Recently）
It has been frequently assumed, but not proved, that the majority of the migrants in what has come to be called the Great Migration came from rural areas and were motivated by two concurrent factors: ……..
But the question of who actually left the South has never been rigorously investigated. ……..
Federal efforts to aid minority businesses began in the 1960's when the Small Business Administration (SBA) ……..
Recently federal policymakers have adopted an approach intended to accelerate development of the (15) minority business sector by moving away from directly.. ……..
Seeking a competitive advantage, some professional service firms(for example, firms providing advertising, accounting, or health care services) have considered offering unconditional guarantees of satisfaction. 。。。。an unconditional guarantee can be an effective marketing tool if the ……..
However, an unconditional guarantee can sometimes hinder marketing efforts. With its implication that fail……..
Recent years have brought minority-owned
businesses in the United States unprecedented
opportunities-as well as new and significant risks.
Civil rights activists have long argued that one of
(5) the principal reasons why Blacks, Hispanics, and
other minority groups have difficulty establishing
themselves in business is that they lack access to
the sizable orders and subcontracts that are gener-
ated by large companies. Now Congress, in appar-
(10) ent agreement, has required by law that businesses
awarded federal contracts of more than $500,000
do their best to find minority subcontractors and
record their efforts to do so on forms filed with the
government. Indeed, some federal and local agen-
(15) cies have gone so far as to set specific percentage
goals for apportioning parts of public works con-
tracts to minority enterprises.
Corporate response appears to have been sub-
stantial. According to figures collected in 1977,
(20) the total of corporate contracts with minority busi-
nesses rose from $77 million in 1972 to $1. lbillion
in 1977. The projected total of corporate contracts
with minority businesses for the early 1980's is
estimated to be over 53 billion per year with no
(25) letup anticipated in the next decade.
Promising as it is for minority businesses, this
increased patronage poses dangers for them, too.
First, minority firms risk expanding too fast and
overextending themselves financially, since most
(30) are small concerns and, unlike large businesses,
they often need to make substantial investments in
new plants, staff, equipment, and the like in order
to perform work subcontracted to them. If, there-
after, their subcontracts are for some reason
(35) reduced, such firms can face potentially crippling
fixed expenses. The world of corporate purchasing
can be frustrating for small entrepreneurs who get
requests for elaborate formal estimates and bids.
Both consume valuable time and resources, and a
(40) small company's efforts must soon result in
orders, or both the morale and the financial health
of the business will suffer.
A second risk is that White-owned companies
may seek to cash in on the increasing apportion-
(45) ments through formation of joint ventures with
minority-owned concerns. Of course, in many
instances there are legitimate reasons for joint
ventures; clearly, White and minority enterprises
can team up to acquire business that neither could
(50) acquire alone. But civil rights groups and minority
business owners have complained to Congress about
minorities being set up as "fronts" with White back-
ing, rather than being accepted as full partners in
legitimate joint ventures.
(55) Third, a minority enterprise that secures the
business of one large corporate customer often run
the danger of becoming--and remaining—dependent.
Even in the best of circumstances, fierce compe-
tition from larger, more established companies
(60) makes it difficult for small concerns to broaden
their customer bases: when such firms have nearly
guaranteed orders from a single corporate bene-
factor, they may truly have to struggle against
complacency arising from their current success.
b. 文章前半部出现phenomenon，文章中部出现to explain ,interpret文章后半部评论出现 explanation interpretation
Historians of women's labor in the United States at first
largely disregarded the story of female service workers
-women earning wages in occupations such as salesclerk.
domestic servant, and office secretary. These historians
(5) focused instead on factory work, primarily because it
seemed so different from traditional, unpaid "women's
work" in the home, and because the underlying economic
forces of industrialism were presumed to be gender-blind
and hence emancipatory in effect. Unfortunately, emanci-
(10) pation has been less profound than expected, for not even
industrial wage labor has escaped continued sex segre-
gation in the workplace.
To explain this unfinished revolution in the status of
women, historians have recently begun to emphasize the
( 15) way a prevailing definition of femininity often etermines
the kinds of work allocated to women, even when such ……
· 行文套路：phenomenon---explanation---author’s attitude
· 阅读重点： 作者的态度评价
A mysterious phenomenon is the ability of over-water migrants to travel on course. Birds, bees, and other species can keep track of time without any sensory cues from the outside world, and such “biological clocks” clearly contribute to their “compass sense.” For example, they can use the position of the Sun or stars, along with the time of day, to find north. But compass sense alone cannot explain how birds navigate the ocean: after a flock traveling east is blown far south by a storm, it will assume the proper northeasterly course to compensate. Perhaps, some scientists thought, migrants determine their geographic position on Earth by celestial navigation, almost as human navigators use stars and planets, but this would demand of the animals a fantastic map sense. Researchers now know that some species have a magnetic sense, which might allow migrants to determine their geographic location by detecting variations in the strength of the Earth’s magnetic field.
a. 首段出现了设问句。“How such large creatures, which weighed in some cases as much as a piloted hang-glider and had wingspans from 8 to 12 meters, solved the problems of powered flight, and exactly what these creatures were--reptiles or birds-are among the questions scientists have puzzled over.”
b. 首段出现了以下四个词语之一：Problem difficulty task puzzle challenge, criteria requirement “How many really suffer as a result of labor market problems? This is one of the most critical yet contentious social policy questions.”“Excess inventory, a massive problem for many businesses, has several causes, some of which are unavoidable. Overstocks may accumulate through production overruns or …….
· TS 作者给予正评价的解决方案。
· 行文套路：problem（question）---solution（answers）---author ‘s attitude
· 阅读重点： 作者的态度评价 “In many ways, our social statistics exaggerate（表示负评价的实义动词） the degree of hardship. Unemployment does not have the same dire consequences today as it did in the 1930's when most of the unemployed were primary breadwinners, when income and earnings were usually much closer to the margin of subsistence, and when there were no countervailing social programs for those failing in the labor market.”
a. 开头出现：人名 (大写字母)+书名（斜体字母）Joseph Glarthaar's Forged in Battle is not the first excellent study of Black soldiers and their White officers in the Civil War, but it uses more soldiers' letters and diaries
b. 开头出现：人名+study, work analysis
a. 一般会与前人比较，说出相同点（like），但是后面的部分必然会出现表示强对比（unlike）或强转折或 （But Yet However）的词汇，说明作者评价的这部作品或观点是“出彩”的
· 阅读重点： 作者的态度评价 （在GMAT文章中，作者主要使用情态动词、 自由褒贬词和实义动词来表示自己的评价）
Massachusetts Institute of Technology GRE: 1353 GMAT:720 Stanford University (CA) GRE: 1354 GMAT:720 University of California–Berkeley GRE: 1353 GMAT:707 Georgia In
GMAT考试是美国管理专业招收研究生委员会主办和负责指导的考试, 其英文全称是Graduate Management Admission Test。GMAT考试的科目包括会计学、经济学、管理学、普通管理、生产管理、行政管理、