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GMAT论道之语法考查新着力点

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从“形合”到“意合”——谈GMAT语法考查新着力点
形合,指通过明显的字面结构性提示,传递句子内部的前后和谐关系。如大家熟悉的平行结构(由not only ….but also、both… and 、neither…nor等广为人知的结构引出)。此类考点在OG11版本出现颇多。其特色是只要抓住这些结构,则此题一招用到得到最后答案。然而,广大考生在借助比较老的练习材料建立了对该考点的基本熟悉之后,却很容易形成思维定式,变成单纯追求形式上的和谐,而忽略了逻辑意义上的和谐,即“意合”,落入“形而上”的陷阱。这一思维定式在08年以来的机考实战中,已经频繁被命题者所利用于构造题目的强迷惑选项。

以下对若干代表性题目做针对性点评。

(1)GWD题目

A New York City ordinance of 1897 regulated the use of bicycles, mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required of cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and it granted pedestrians right-of-way。

A. regulated the use of bicycles, mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required of cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and it granted

B. regulated the use of bicycles, mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, granting

C. regulating the use of bicycles mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required cyclists that they keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and it granted

D. regulating the use of bicycles, mandating a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, requiring of cyclists that they keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and granted

E. regulating the use of bicycles mandated a maximum speed of eight miles an hour, required cyclists to keep feet on pedals and hands on handlebars at all times, and granted

答案为E。易见该题意在考查四个动词regulate、mandate、required、granted的排列问题。考生容易先入为主,先假设四个动作是平行的,然后按照这个标准去寻找答案,最后感到困惑。实际上,该题最精妙之处,在于四个动作实际上并不平行。Regulate后面的内容是整个自行车的使用规则,后面三个动作分别介绍了该规则的三个方面。所以,regulate的层次是高于另外三个动词的。所以E的写法并没有使用四个动词平行的写法,却是真正正确的写法。

(2)见于GWD与PREP08

Minivans carry as many as seven passengers and, compared with most sport utility vehicles, cost less, get better gas mileage, allow passengers to get in and out more easily, and have a smoother ride。

A. Minivans carry as many as seven passengers and, compared with most sport utility vehicles, cost less,

B. Minivans, which carry as many as seven passengers, compared with most sport utility vehicles, they cost less,

C. Minivans carry as many as seven passengers, in comparison with most sport utility vehicles, and have a lower cost, they

D. Minivans, carrying as many as seven passengers, compared with most sport utility vehicles, cost less,

E. Minivans, which carry as many as seven passengers, compared with most sport utility vehicles the cost is lower, and they

在PREP08出来之前,该题答案一直在A和D之间争议,直到PREP给出正确答案A才中止了争议。该题精妙之处在于,D选项是命题者故意设置的“形合”,让读者观感上觉得cost、get、allow、have形成了平行。而感到A选项的第一个“and”为多余。实际上,动作carry和后面几个动作并不平行。这个句子的逻辑关系是,“Carry”这个动作是没有参加“compared”的,所以自成一个层次,而另外四个动词是“compared”的项目,它们另外组成了一个四连珠的动词平行结构。故而A中的第一个“and“恰恰是必要的。

(3)来自Prep08

A mixture of poems and short fiction, Jean Toomer's Cane has been called one of the three best novels ever written by Black Americans—the others being Richard Wright, author of Native Son, and Ralph Ellison, author of Invisible Man

A. Black Americans—the others being Richard Wright, author of Native Son, and Ralph Ellison, author of Invisible Man

B. Black Americans—including Native Son by Richard Wright and Invisible Man by Ralph Ellison

C. a Black American—including Richard Wright, author of Native Son, and Ralph Ellison, author of Invisible Man

D. a Black American—the others being Richard Wright, author of Native Son, and Ralph Ellison, author of Invisible Man

E. a Black American—the others being Richard Wright's Native Son and Ralph Ellison's Invisible Man

此题第一要点在于不纠缠于黑人到底使用单数还是复数形式,而是从并列对象是书而不是人入手,排除之后余下BE,此题另一精妙之处在于如何在BE之间抉择,谨记避免犯形而上的错误,简单根据E项有Being就杀之。此类对思维要求低的排除方法已经被证明在现行机考中越来越不靠谱。实际上遵循意合的思路容易找到线索。划线外部使用的作者与书的关系所有格写法是‘s,所以与之保持一致,则后面也使用同一个写法,故而选择E。此题并无明显并列连词提示考生题中的和谐关系,是依靠对句意理解得出。 

(4)来自Prep08

Whereas the honeybee’s stinger is heavily barbed and cannot be retracted from the skin, because the yellow jacket has a comparatively smooth stinger, it is therefore able to be pulled out and used again。

A. because the yellow jacket has a comparatively smooth stinger, it is therefore able to be pulled out and used

B. the comparative smoothness of the yellow jacket’s stinger allows them to pull it out and then can therefore use it

C. the yellow jacket’s stinger is comparatively smooth, and can therefore be pulled out and used

D. in comparison, the yellow jacket’s stinger is smooth, and thus able to be pulled out and used

E. in comparison, the yellow jacket has a smooth stinger, thus allowing it to be pulled out and used

此题易看出whereas构成了前后2句的对比关系,一般考生都能借此确定比较对象是stinger,而排除之后剩下CD,在CD的抉择中,精妙之处在于C的写法之中conparatively与前半句的heavily的对称,仿佛有对偶之感。在该题目中设置这处小提示绝非无意,实际上在大量PREP08题目中都有这个现象,即不显眼的“小对称”,使得句子更宛若天成。

(5)来自PREP08

The organic food industry has organized a successful grassroots campaign—using Web sites, public meetings, and also mass mailings—that have convinced the Department of Agriculture to change the proposed federal regulations for organically grown food。

A. using Web sites, public meetings, and also mass mailings—that have convinced

B. using Web sites, public meetings, and mass mailings—that has convinced

C. by using Web sites, public meetings, and mass mailings—in convincing

D. by the use of Web sites, public meetings, as well as mass mailings—that convinced

E. which used Web sites, public meetings, and mass mailings—in convincing

此题是意合的又一经典。其线索在于划线外successful一词,暗示了划线内时态的完成态,构成了美丽的“意合”。再由主谓一致可直接确定B答案。在GWD中,还有划线外动词使用predict、propose等,暗示划线内使用将来时态的例子。说明命题者绝非偶尔为之。

(6)来自PREP08

In her 26 years in the forests of Gombe, Jane Goodall collected data that proved that chimpanzees exhibit the kind of curiosity so that new patterns of behavior and expression can be passed on from each one to others by imitating and practicing

A. exhibit the kind of curiosity so that new patterns of behavior and expression can be passed on from each one to others by imitating and practicing

B. will exhibit the kind of curiosity so that new patterns of behavior and expression can be passed on from one to another by imitating and practicing

C. will exhibit the kind of curiosity so that new patterns of behavior and expression can be passed on from one to another by imitation and practice

D. exhibit the kind of curiosity by which new patterns of behavior and expression can be passed on from one to another by imitation and practice

E. exhibit the kind of curiosity where new patterns of behavior and expression are passed on to others by imitation and practice

有了上一个题目的提示,读者可能会容易注意到“prove”,有了这个暗示,可以排除选项中使用将来时的选项。

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2010-09-02 10:37 编辑:juliatt
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