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常见的10种有毒食物

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每天我们都会吃下带有毒素的食物,大多数时候也不用担心,因为水果和蔬菜的大规模生产往往保证了我们的安全。但时不时地也会有人因为无意中吃下了某种植物不该吃的部分而意外致死。为了确保这种事不发生在你身上,我必须列出一些厨房里最常见的有毒物质。
Everyday we chow down on food produced from plants that carry deadly poisons. Most of the time we don’t need to be concerned with this as the mass production of fruit and vegetables ensures that we are usually safe, but from time to time people accidentally kill themselves by unwittingly eating the wrong part of a plant. In order to ensure that this never happens to you, I have put together a list of the most commonly seen poisons that we come in to contact with in our kitchens.
10.木薯(树薯)
10. Cassava (Yuca)
虽然在美国并不常见,但灌木状的木薯广泛分布在加勒比海和南美洲。在用木薯作食材的时候,将其做成甜苦皆可。它的味道和气味都取决于生氰配糖物的量,这种物质是有剧毒的。大多数愿意吃木薯的人喜欢其苦味,因为这种味道能够驱赶昆虫甚至动物。如果吃木薯前的准备工作没有做好,很可能吃完就一命呜呼了。因为富含氰化物,木薯的毒性可能导致神经麻痹疾病,也会引起永久性瘫痪。
Though not too widely used in the United States, cassava is a woody shrub that is generally found in the Caribbean and South America. When using cassava, it can either be made to be sweet or bitter. The taste, as well as the smell, all depends on the amount of cyanogenic glucosides, which are in fact, extremely poisonous. Most who prepare it like it to be bitter, as it keeps away insects and even animals. If cassava is prepared incorrectly, it can be deadly. Cassava poisoning, due to high levels of cyanide, is known as Konzo. Cassava poisoning leads to irreversible paralysis.
小贴士:木薯根的成分与面粉相似,提取出来之后可以制作木薯粉。木薯叶包含氰化物,但如果将其捣碎与面粉和在一起在荫头里放五个小时,氰化物就会分解。
Interesting fact: Cassava roots are ground into a flour-like substance which is then used to make tapioca. Cassava leaves contain cyanide but if pounded into a paste with flour and left in the shade for 5 hours, the cyanide is broken down.
9.河豚鱼
9. Pufferfish
河豚鱼是世界上第二毒的脊椎动物。虽然你在美国吃不到,但许多韩国人和日本人觉得这种鱼的部分肉质非常鲜美。但是,某些器官比如肝脏,是剧毒致命的。这种鱼体内的毒素学名为河豚毒素,它能造成高血压、肌肉麻痹等症状,并导致中毒者由于隔膜肌麻痹、呼吸中止而死亡。许多亚洲人对于河豚这一危险的美味还是难以拒绝。
Pufferfish stand to be the second most poisonous vertebrate in the world. Though you won’t find pufferfish in the U.S., many in Korea as well as Japan find some parts of the fish to be delicacies. However, certain organs of the fish, such as the liver, as extremely toxic, and can be deadly. The poison in the fish, known as tetrodotoxin, can cause numbness, high blood pressure, and muscle paralysis, which is what leads to death as the diaphragm muscles become paralyzed, disabling breathing. Known as fugu when eaten as a meal, many in Asian countries refuse to not eat the fish.
小贴士:日本天皇吃河豚鱼现在是违法的。
Interesting fact: Pufferfish has been made illegal to be eaten by the Emperor of Japan.
8.蘑菇
8. Mushrooms
在美国大约有五千种蘑菇,其中约一百种据说有毒,而能致死的不到十个。尽管如此,蘑菇还是可能导致肠胃不适。因为蘑菇的本质是真菌而又有那么多个种类,所以很难判断哪种有毒那种没毒。凭经验来看,通常我们说野外生长的蘑菇很可能有毒。蝇蕈素是最致命的蘑菇毒素之一,它能造成肝脏严重损伤。我们所说的毒蕈也是有毒的蘑菇之一。
There are about 5000 types of mushrooms known in the U.S. and about 100 of them are said to be toxic, while less than a dozen are deadly. In any case, mushrooms can cause gastrointestinal discomfort. Since mushrooms are fungi and the fact that there are so many species, it can be hard to know which are poisonous. As rule of thumb, it is usually said that any mushroom found in the wild are more than likely poisonous. One of the deadliest types of mushroom toxins is Alpha-amanitin, which causes extreme liver damage. Toadstools, as they are called, are the poisonous mushrooms.
小贴士:现有38000种已知蘑菇种类,其中5%有毒。
Interesting fact: There are 38,000 known kinds of mushrooms; about 5% of these are toxic.
7.腰果
7. Cashews
虽然不是坚果类植物而是种子,但腰果有一个似壳结构,并生长在水果上。当你在商店里买“生腰果”的时候,一定要买蒸过、不完全生的。这是因为生腰果含有漆酚,这也是毒藤里能找得到的同种有毒化学物质,这种物质能使身体产生与接触毒藤和毒橡树同样的反应。摄入大量漆酚可能致命。虽然腰果中毒的案例比较少见,但是给他们去壳生产的工人由于亲密接触,有时候会有副作用的隐患。
Though really seeds and not nuts, cashews grow inside of a shell-like structure that grows on a fruit. When buying “raw cashews” in the store, take note that these nuts have actually been steamed and are not entirely raw. This is because raw cashews contain urushiol, which is the same chemical that you’d find in poison ivy. It can cause the body to have a very similar reaction to one experienced from poison oak or ivy. If a high level of urushiol is ingested, it can be deadly. Cashew poisoning is rare, but those who handle them in order to manufacture them to get the shell off sometimes experience the side-effects.
小贴士:腰果从一种水果里来,这种水果原产于南美国家。从前人们吃掉水果就把种子(腰果)给扔了。
Interesting fact: Cashews come from a fruit, which in South American countries, is eaten, and the seeds (cashews) are then thrown away.
6.红辣椒
6. Chilies
你一生中多多少少吃过红辣椒,不管吃的是特别辣的还是不怎么辣的,你吃的每个红辣椒都含有一种化学物质叫做辣椒素。在红辣椒里,辣椒素是辣味的始作俑者。当然吃一个红辣椒问题不大,但你如果吃得太多到一定量的话,可能会有生命危险。这种化学物质很是给力,人们用他们来作脱漆剂甚至做警方用的胡椒喷雾。在很辣的红辣椒如哈瓦那里,辣椒素的含量惊人,以致于你如果切开辣椒,立刻就会感觉到皮肤上有灼烧痛感。
You’ve probably eaten a chili or two in your life. No matter if it was an extremely hot one, or one that was pretty mild, every chili you have ever consumed has contained a chemical called capsaicin. In chilies, capsaicin is what makes them spicy and “hot.” Of course one chili won’t hurt, but if you eat enough of them, capsaicin can kill you. The chemical is so strong that it is used as a paint stripper, and it is even used in pepper spray used by police forces. In hotter chilies, such as habaneros, capsaicin can be felt on the skin if you cut the chili, as it will produce a burning sensation.
小贴士:红辣椒特别富含维生素C,而在一个绿色辣椒荚里据说维C的含量有其六倍之多。
Interesting fact: Chilies are extremely high in Vitamin C. One green chili pod is said to contain about 6 times as much Vitamin C.
5.土豆
5. Potatoes
我们或多或少都听说过有关土豆的故事。不论是爱尔兰土豆大饥荒,还是别的相关历史事件,都已经耳熟能详了,但你可能没有听说过土豆也是有毒的。土豆植物的茎和叶是有毒的,甚至土豆本身也是有毒的。如果你仔细观察过土豆,那你可能会发现有些土豆呈微绿色,这是配糖生物碱的毒性所致。过去有过因为土豆毒性发作致死的案例,虽然很罕见,但多数是因为饮用土豆叶茶或者吃发绿的土豆。致死的事件也不是突发的,当事人在食用后往往是起初虚弱无力,而后陷入昏迷。不用担心偶尔吃到的绿色土豆片,但一定要把长了绿芽或表皮变绿了的土豆扔掉,不要再去烧煮食用,特别要小心别给儿童吃。
We’ve all heard something or another about potatoes. Whether it is the potato famine, some Irish story, or some other historical event centered on potatoes, one thing you may not have heard of is that potatoes are toxic. The stem and leaves of the plant are toxic, and even the potato itself is toxic. If you’ve ever looked at a potato, you may have realized that some turn a greenish color. This is due to levels of glycoalkaloid poison. In the past, there have been deaths due to potato poisoning. It is rare, but most happen due to someone drinking potato leaf tea, or eating green potatoes. Death doesn’t come suddenly. It usually results in weakness and then a coma. Don’t worry about having the occasional green potato chip, but do discard any potatoes that have green eyes, sprouts, or greenish skins, rather than prepare and serve them, especially to children.
小贴士:土豆是宇航员的好食物!事实上在1995年,土豆植物随哥伦比亚号绕地球轨道飞行时也在成长。
Interesting fact: Potatoes make great food for astronaut! In fact in 1995 potato plants were taken into orbit on the Columbia and actually grown.
4.杏仁
4. Almonds
多数人总是认为杏仁是一种坚果,但实际上它是种子,而且在全世界的烹饪界特别流行。和腰果类似,如果不经过某种形式加热的话,杏仁是剧毒的,而要去除毒性的主要是苦味杏仁,它富含氰化物,在许多国家,出售没有经过加工去除其毒素的杏仁是非法的。
Almonds, most always said to be nuts, are actually seeds and are extremely popular in kitchens around the world. Much like cashews, almonds are extremely poisonous if not introduced to some sort of heat source. It is generally the bitter almonds that need to be treated to get rid of the poison. The seeds are full of cyanide, and in many countries are illegal to sell without having been processed in order to get rid of the poison within the seed.
小贴士:圣经旧约中提到,杏仁是人类最早种植的食物之一。
Interesting fact: Almonds are said to be one of the earliest cultivated foods, being mentioned in the Bible’s Old Testament.
3.樱桃
3. Cherries
樱桃绝对是吃法最多的水果之一,生吃、烧煮、烤熟、作成果酱或糖果都可以,樱桃甚至可以配某些酒吃。尽管好处多多,但樱桃是有毒的。如果你吃樱桃的时候不加思索的咬开了核然后留在嘴里没吐出来,你很可能就吞下了氢氰酸。一旦樱桃核被咀嚼或咬碎了,他就会自动产生氢氰酸。轻度中毒症状包括头痛、头晕、意识错乱、焦虑心慌和呕吐。大量的氢氰酸会导致呼吸困难、高血压、心脏跳动过快以及肾衰竭。其他反应包括昏迷、抽搐,最严重的会导致呼吸系统衰竭致死。
Cherries are definitely one of the most versatile fruits. You can eat them raw, cook them, bake them, and get them tart or sweet. Cherries can even be used in certain types of liquor. Despite their overall red goodness, cherries are toxic. If you’ve ever eaten a cherry and without thought chewed on the pip or left it in your mouth, you more than likely introduced hydrogen cyanide into your body. If a cherry pip is chewed, crushed, or somehow damaged, it automatically produces hydrogen cyanide. Symptoms of mild poisoning include headache, dizziness, confusion, anxiety, and vomiting. Larger doses can lead to difficulty breathing, increased blood pressure and heart rate, and kidney failure. Reactions can include coma, convulsions, and death from respiratory arrest.
小贴士:樱桃富含大量褪黑激素,能帮助保持和调节身体状态。
Interesting fact: Cherries contain extremely high amounts of Melatonin which is good for helping and keeping the body regulated.
2.苹果
2. Apples
不管走到哪里,苹果绝对都是一个受欢迎的水果。与这份表单上其他的食物相似,苹果也含有氰化物,但含量不高。果肉里并不含什么有毒化学物质,但在苹果核里你会发现氰化物。把一个苹果核全吃了虽然不会致死,但也绝对对身体不好。当然,如果你吃太多的苹果核,(前提是要咀嚼并吞下)就有可能有并发症。
Apples are definitely a popular fruit no matter where you go. Like others on the list, and many other types of fruits, apples contain cyanide, but not in high levels. The fruit itself does not contain the chemical, but you will find cyanide in the apple’s seeds. Eating all of the seeds in one apple won’t kill you, but it’s definitely not recommended. Of course, if enough apple seeds are eaten, this means chewed and swallowed, it can result in complications.
小贴士:苹果可以浮于水面因为它们体积的25%是空气。
Interesting fact: Apples float because at least 25% of their mass is nothing but air
1.番茄
1. Tomato
尽管在许多国家番茄受热捧,但他们确实有毒。虽然果肉本身不含毒素,但其茎和叶却饱含一种叫做配糖生物碱的化学物质。在野生番茄里这种物质的含量更高,但人工种植的番茄还是多少有一些影响。这种东西会导致胃功能紊乱和焦虑紧张。茎和叶可以用作烹饪调味品,但必须在食用前去除。这种化学物质的效用很大,事实上,它往往用来驱虫。
Despite the extreme popularity of tomatoes and many countries, it is true that they are poisonous. Though the fruit itself doesn’t contain poison, the stem as well as the leaves contain a chemical known as glycoalkaloid. Higher levels are said to be found in wild tomatoes, but those grown domestically still contain glycoalkaloid. This chemical is known to cause upset stomachs and nervousness. The leaves and stem can be used in cooking for flavor, but must be removed before eating. This chemical is so powerful that it is actually used as a way to control pests.
小贴士:1893年,在美国最高法院Nix v. Hedden案件中,争论的焦点在于界定番茄究竟是蔬菜还是水果,因为涉及到针对蔬菜而不是水果的税收。最终,法院判决根据税法,番茄是一种蔬菜,而从植物学角度来说,它是一种水果。
Interesting fact: In 1893, in the U.S. Supreme Court case Nix v. Hedden, it was argued whether or not a tomato was a vegetable or a fruit, which dealt with taxes being paid on vegetbles and not fruits. In the end, the court ruled that a tomato is a vegetable when referring to the Tariff Act, but is botanically a fruit.
标签:食物
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2010-08-27 00:09 编辑:kuaileyingyu
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