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【口试辅导】英语口译能力训练法宝

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如今,一张高级口译证书已经成为了大学生朝思暮想的职场"敲门砖",而原因就在于高级口译是当前各种英语能力证书中最具含金量的,同时也是最具挑战性的。每一百个应试者中最终能如愿以偿的,也不过那么十来个幸运儿,其竞争的激烈程度可想而知。当然,竞争激烈只是一个方面,"高口"的终极魅力是在于她的难驾驭性。高级口译的口译考试部分共有四篇文章,分为八段,英译中,中译英各两篇。每段的长度都在八、九十字,有时甚至超过一百字,其信息量之大,密度之高令其他所有的英语考试都望尘莫及。因此,应试者除了必须具备良好、扎实的中英文功底,还必须拥有强大的记忆能力、应变能力和心理承受能力,这四者缺一不可。其实,这也是口译本身魅力之所在,紧张和刺激,就如同一项限运动--挑战"高口"就是挑战自我,挑战极限。
  笔者从2001年开始从事口译工作和教学,并担任过一系列重要国际会议的交互传译和同声传译。在这方面可以说是颇有心得,由于,篇幅有限,我想针对"高口"的重点和难点,分别就"英译中"和"中译英",给大家四件训练的法宝,共三十二个字:把握意群,提升记忆;脑记大意,笔记细节;摸清主干,苦练视译;捕捉信息,得"意"忘"形"。
  英汉口译
  由于英语不是我们的母语,所以在英汉口译中我们碰到最大的障碍不是中文的表达,而是对英语句子的记忆和把握。可以说这就是英汉口译的门槛。
  口译法宝之一:提升记忆,把握意群
  许多参加"高口"培训的考生都有一个最基本的障碍--听得懂单词,却听不懂句子。其实,这是他们大脑记忆单位的一种缺陷。任何篇章都由句子组成,而在口译实践中,如果简单地把听懂单词、词组作为目标,那只能是"捡了芝麻,丢了西瓜"(Lose the forest for the trees.)其实,攻克英语句子记忆障碍是口译入门的第一关。我们不妨举几个例子:
  Eg. 1:. Mr. Green has always been very critical of his daughter's writings, but somehow he gave some favorable comments on this poorly written poem of hers.
  这个句子一共有25个单词,但是意群却只有两个:Mr. Green has always been very critical of his daughter's writings--格林先生对他女儿的写作非常挑剔;but somehow he gave some favorable comments on this poorly written poem of hers但不知怎的,对她的这首写得颇为逊色的诗歌却给予了肯定。
  Eg. 2: According to an agreement reached last Friday with China's Ministry of Electronic Industry, Intel will provide China with technological guidance and standards on the production of personal computers equipped with a Pentium processor to ensure the quality of the products.
  这句话一共40个单词,但意群只有四个:According to an agreement reached last Friday with China's Ministry of Electronic Industry,根据和中国电子产业部于上周五达成的一项协议;Intel will provide China with technological guidance and standards英特尔公司将向中国提供技术指导和标准;on the production of personal computers(这些指导和标准是)关于生产个人电脑(PC机)的;with a Pentium processor to ensure the quality of the products(这些PC机)配有奔腾处理器,以保证产品的质量。
通过,意群记忆单位,我们只要根据中文的语言特性对它们稍作调整,就可以顺利地表达出整个句子的意思。
  "意群"记忆法可以迅速提升我们对英语长句的把握。具体练习的方法是:选择字数在40-50左右的句子,听两遍,然后根据意群,记忆并复述整个句子。例如:It was in October/ when the broad avenues were carpeted with fallen leaves of parasol trees/ and it was in this golden fall/ when colorful and cultural activities of all kinds were on show/ that the Chinese Culture Year was held in France. 这是一个强调句:it was in October和it was in this golden fall可以稍加合并:金秋十月;两个由when引导的定于从句分别修饰October和golden fall:金色的梧桐树叶铺满了街道,各种丰富多彩的文化活动纷纷登场亮相;最后一个意群:中国文化节在法国开幕。
  这种练习不仅可以提高英语的听力,还可以迅速提升对英语句子的记忆能力。但值得注意的是,该训练的要求是复述,而非翻译,另外还要持之以恒。在"先知进修学院"教学时,我对学生的一贯要求是:一百句太少,三百句不多,五百句正好。
  口译法宝之二:脑记大意,笔记细节
  意群提升了我们的记忆单元,大大加强了我们对英语句子的把握。但是,光把握句子是不够的,因为口译的最终目标是翻译篇章,因此还牵涉到一个"长时记忆"和"短时记忆"的问题。长时记忆主要是指对整个语篇意思的整体把握,主要包括:各句子的主语、谓语和语篇的整体结构。短时记忆是指对每个细节的准确把握,主要包括:数字、时间、地点以及并列信息。可以毫不夸张地讲,长时记忆是口译的基础,而短时记忆是口译的关键;前者用脑,后者用手;手脑并用,方能相得益彰。我们不妨来举几个例子:
  1. Among 50,000 children aged 13 to 15 in 12 developing or transitional countries the finds are revealing: 24% of them had tried smoking, 9% they were current smokers. A quarter of those who smoked said they had started before they were 11 years old. It was really an encouraging fact that 68% of them said that they wanted to kick the habit. 虽然这段话只有62个单词,但是其包含的信息量非常大,具体表现是数字多,平行的信息多。因此,我们应该结合脑记和笔记。笔记部分可以交叉中英文,关键是抓住信息。
  脑记部分:主题:关于吸烟状况的研究发现;整体结构:两组数据,有喜有忧。
  笔记部分:50,000 aged13-15 12 developing/transitional countries
  findings: 24% try smoking
9% current smokers
25% smokers start<11 // encouraging 68% kick
  2. People are greeting the arrival of the new millennium, longing for peace, stability, happiness and success. But many watch it with distress, worry, misgivings and even terror. Indeed we are entering the new century laden with a multitude of unresolved issues left over from the 20th century. (47 words)
  脑记部分:主题:进入新世纪的复杂心情以及现实。
  笔记部分:新千年
  人--long for: 平稳、幸福、成功
  但又:忧抑(distress, worry)、惶恐(misgivings, terror)
  进入New Century--多issues from 20th Century
  当语篇信息密集且并列较多的时候,要尽量采用纵向记录,提高记录速度和分辨速度:
  3. When the United States senate failed to pass a balanced budget amendment in 1995 the world's currency traders were panicked and started a run on the US dollar, which they believed was already undervalued at least 10% against the Japanese yen. At that time, the dollar fell from 106 yen to less than 80 yen in two weeks. The central banks of the United States, England, Germany, Japan, Switzerland and France, tried to reverse the trend but failed, losing billions in the attempt. It took the dollar more than a year to climb back to its original undervalued rate. (100 words)
  脑记部分:美元对日元贬值,各国央行力图挽救,未果。
  笔记部分:当:1995 美参 平衡预算修正X
  炒家 惊--抛$ ∵ $ v.s. yen 贬 10%
  ∴两周 $ 106↓80
  US
  UK
  Ger 央行 扭转 trend
  Jap
  Swis
  Fran
  But: X
  & Bs loss
  >1 yr.
  $ 原低Rate v.s. yen
  然后在脑记和笔记我们基础上,这段话可以译成:1995年美国参院没能通过一项平衡预算的修正案许多国际(货币)炒家惊恐万分,开始纷纷抛售美元,因为(他们)相信美元对日元已经贬值达10%。于是,美元汇率在两周内从1:106下跌至1:80以下。美国、英国、德国、日本、瑞士、法国央行想扭转美元的颓势,但不仅没成功还损失了几十亿。之后,美元汇率整整过了一年多才恢复到了原先对日元的低位。
要指出的是,做笔记不能简单地依靠文字,而是要文字符号并用。虽然,这些符号因人而异,但有些是约定俗成的,学员们应该熟练掌握。这些符号在《高级口译教程》中都能找到,笔者在此不再赘述。特别提醒,要娴熟地做到手脑并用并非一朝一夕,这需要大量的练习,在"先知"教学时我一直遵循:政治、经济、文化、教育、科普,五大板块,五十个段落--这一持之以恒的原则,可谓是受益匪浅。

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2010-08-25 15:55 编辑:juliatt
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