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【翻译辅导】上海高级口译翻译的基本标准和方法

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上海高级口译翻译的基本标准和方法

(一)准确

动笔之前要深刻理解原文的中心思想和内容,找出难点,特别是无法对译的地方,然后再查字典和参考书、参考资料,记下相关的提示词汇和术语。

在遵循准确这一原则的同时,还要注意约定俗成的问题。有的银行业务术语沿用已久,就不必去硬行更正,比如"票根",被用来指advice of drawing, drawing advice,即开票通知。然而"票根"的英语对应词是counterfoil,指任何票证开出或撕下后的存根,显然两者是有本质区别的。因此,在银行工作中碰到"票根"二字时,切不可翻译成"counterfoil"。

规范化

所用的词汇、短语、句子及语法都必须符合本语种的一般规范和习惯,否则就会出现中文西化,西文中化的毛病。要使译文规范化,必须牢固而又清楚地掌握英汉两种语言文字的相同点和不同点,不然译文将晦涩难懂。前面提到英汉两种语言文字有的可以对应,有的只能部分对应。因此,翻译时使用最多的是完全对译和部分对译相结合的方法。同时还要进行艺术加工,即合并、拆散、引申、增加、减少、补充说明等,才能圆满地完成翻译任务。现分别举例简述如下:

完全对应

(二)部分对译

  遇到多义词时,要根据它在上下文的意思去确定它的哪一种词义同汉语(中文)相对应,或者接近之后,才能决定取舍,例如:

  a. Who has torn the cover of my book? (封面)

  b. We are today forwarding you our new test key under separate cover. (信封、封套)

  c. The cover of the above-mentioned draft was remitted to you on the date of issue through the Chartered Bank, London. (头寸

碰到一词多义的情况时,一定要根据上下文去找到对应或接近的词,切忌望文生义。银行信贷业务中常说发放贷款,英语的发放二字可用make、issue、 launch等,如发放贷款可译作to launch a loan。但这里的launch一词用在别处意思就不同了。如to launch a movement, campaign, drive搞运动、活动;to launch a training program, class, course举办培训班,to launch a satellite发射卫星

三.艺术加工

译是一种再创造的工作,这已成为人们的共识,简单对译的情况很少,即使是完全在字义上的对译,也会发生语序的变化,前面已有例证。英语说"go to see the doctor"(直译为去看医生),而汉语却习惯说"去看(瞧)病"。反之,汉语说"恢复疲劳"(最好说"解除疲劳"),英语却习惯说"relax one's mind or relax oneself"(让大脑放松),绝对不能按字面意思对译成"resume fatigue"(又疲劳了),初学英语者常犯类似的错误。又如:外国直接投资,常译成"direct foreign investment"(直接的外国投资),也有译作"foreign direct investment"的。笔者认为后者较好,因为强调投资方式的修饰语"直接"一词紧靠其前,符合英语习惯。

  汉语总是把较重要的修饰词放在所有修饰词的前面,如:他是一位杰出的受人爱戴的优秀教师。这里强调的是他作出了杰出贡献,是优秀者当中的尖子。可是,英语中还有一个习惯,如果有几个形容词同时修饰一名词,形容词的顺序是由短到长,最长的紧靠名词的前面,特别是在演讲稿中,读起来铿锵有力,富于乐感,更能打动听众。因此,上面这句话应翻译成:He is a good, beloved and outstanding teacher.

  再看一例:FORTUNE Global Top 500 is a pronoun of the largest, most influential and outstanding complexes in the world. "《财富》全球500强是世界上最杰出、最有影响、最大公司的代名词。"英语用一个词表达的意思,汉语要用两个甚至多个词去翻译。反之亦然。英汉对译时,需要同时采用不同的处理方法,我们不妨归纳成四个字:艺术加工。下面分别举例说明:

  1. 合并

  即把原文的两个或多个句子合并成一个,或把多个句子合并成较少的句子,例如:

  a. I'm going to Shanghai by air. I like flying. (两句)我乘飞机去上海,我喜欢飞行。(一句,后半句说明为何不坐火车去)

  b. Our computer runs out of order from time to time. It should be repaired. (两句)我们的电脑经常出故障,应该修一修了。(一句)

  上面是英译汉时进行合并的例子。反过来汉译英也可这样处理,如下面的电传稿:

  今年3月,我行张副行长访问贵行期间,提出我行在贵国设立分行的口头申请。当时贵方表示同意。后因我方原因,未能及时联系……

  DURING HIS VISIT TO YOUR FINE BANK IN MARCH THIS YEAR OUR EVP ZHANG ORALLY APPLIED TO YOU FOR SETTING UP A BRANCH IN YOUR ESTEEMED COUNTRY AND YOU EXPRESSED YOUR CONSENT THERETO. FURTHER CONTACT WAS HOWEVER SUSPENDED FOR SOME REASONS ON OUR PART……

  此译文将前两句合并,使对方已同意过这一点得到强调。

  2. 拆散

  将较长的句子,特别是法律文件中的长句子译成几个汉语句子,便于理解。下面举三个例子:

  a. The certificates (FRCD-floating rate certificate of deposit), which are fully negotiable, constitute unsecured obligations of the issuing bank and rank pari passu with all other deposits of the bank. (一句)

  浮动利率存单完全可以流通。这就使发行银行承担了未获担保而支付的义务。此种存单与银行的其他存款具有同样的地位。(三句)

  b. The documentary credit offers a unique and universally used method of achieving a commercially acceptable compromise by providing for payment to be made against documents that represent the goods and make possible the transfer of rights to those goods. (一句)

  跟单信用证提供了一种独特的、全世界都采用的方法,即凭代表货物的单据付款,从而使货权的转移成为可能。这是一种商业上可以接受的折衷方式。(两句)

  c. Salomon then bought back the notes and wound up with 46% of the December issue and 57% of the five-year February issue in violation of Treasury reles. (一句)

  -Business Week Aug. 26, 1991

  然而,萨洛蒙公司买回了这些债务,并且捞到手约定46%的12月国库券和57%的5年期2月国库券。这种做法违背了国库券条例。(两句,后一句分开起强调作用)

  以上是英译汉时拆散的例子。同样,在汉译英时也可以这样处理,但似乎不如前者普遍,例如:

  a. 真对不起,我没想(并非有意)来打搅你。(一句)I'm, terribly sorry. I didn't mean to interrupt you. (两句)

  如果把译文的两个句子合成一句,就显得别扭,前后时态不能一致起来,而且不如分开的语气强。

  b. 经过北伐、土地革命、抗日战争和解放战争,推翻了帝国主义、封建主义、官僚资本主义三座大山,中国人民从此站起来了,并且从新民主主义走上社会主义道路,取得建设社会主义的巨大成就。--《党的十五大报告》

  Through the Northern Expedition, the Agrarian Revolution, the War of Resistance Against Japan and the War of Liberation, we overthrew the three big mountains of imperialism, feudalism and bureaucratic capitalism. The Chinese people rose to their feet. Proceeding from New Democracy, they took the road to socialism and scored tremendous achievements in socialist construction.

  试分析如下:原文是一个简单句,主语是"中国人民",谓语是"站起来了"、"走上"、"取得"。这三个行为动作虽是并列的但有着递进关系。"经过"是介词,后面有四个宾语,整个短语作状语说明"推翻",接着才是中国人民"站起来了,走上并取得"巨大成就。不难看出,这句话的核心部分是"中国人民站起来了"。译文正是按上述理解,分成了三个独立的句子。重点放在第二个短句。第一句说明怎样,何时站起来,而第三句回答站起来过后怎么样。这样就重点突出,层次显得更加清楚,符合英语长短句搭配的习惯,也便于同声传译。同时,用了两个都指中国人民的人称代词we, they避免了重复。如果不这样处理,四个谓语动词并列,状语位置就难以安排,因为不能直接修饰"站起来了"、"走上"、"取得"。

很多考生以前几乎没有真正接触过翻译,几乎没有什么翻译实践,更没有系统学习过翻译的一些基本技巧。况且,从考试大纲可以看出,不管英译汉还是汉译英,考查的都是政治、经济、社会和文化方面的文章,这些主题类的文章都是相对比较正式、表达比较繁杂的,特别是汉译英,要求用英文来表达中国特色的东西,这是很多考生以前很少接触的,比如很多考生对诸如改革开放、综合国力、中国加入世贸组织等常见的英文表达没有任何概念。汉译英如果没有这些词汇的积累,翻译技巧就无从谈起,因此汉译英的备考应该从这些中国特色词汇的积累开始,翻译教程和口译教程都有很多这种最常见的表达,此外还有历年考试真题,这些都是极好的备考材料。当然,要想自己的译文得到阅卷老师的认可,在翻译部分拿到高分,以下这些翻译技巧必须引起广大考生的注意,尤其对于我们很多没有太多翻译实践经验的考生,掌握我们根据历年考题和考生翻译练习中总结出来的这些高分技能是准备翻译部分考试的一条捷径。

Restricting communication and distorting information are symptoms of short-range thinking。限制交流、歪曲信息都是目光短浅(或缺乏远见或鼠目寸光)的表现。

2.适当增减信息

自此新中国成立以来
since the foundation of the People’s Republic of China。加上了这个信息就达到了真正的对等了。再如:对于2005年3月高级口译汉译英中的“伟大的抗战精神”,我们看到“抗战”这个词很快就知道指的是抗日战争,很多考生不顾这个事实,生硬的译为the grand anti-war spirit(反战精神),native speaker看到这样的表达肯定一头雾水,翻译这个表达时,必须添加“抗日”的信息,可以译文The grant spirit of the war against Japanese aggression。

3.与汉译英相反,很多考生在英译汉时过于忠实,舍不得放弃任何一个词。其实因为英语里很多词是语法上的需要,没有太多的语义信息,这种词在翻译成汉语时往往要去掉,表达才会更自然。如有考生将He shrugged his shoulders and shook his head, but said nothing翻译成:他耸了耸他的肩,摇了摇他的头,但是什么也不说。这样的译文不可谓不忠实,但读起来却又觉得很可笑:他当然是耸“他的”肩,摇“他的”头,这个物主代词在英语里不可少,翻译成汉语纯属画蛇添足

我们要采用“迂回”战术:正面不行就从反面说,肯定不行就用否定说,直接不行就用间接说,主动不行就用被动说。这就是翻译里的“视觉转换”策略,相当于我们以前做数学题时的“逆向法”。很多表达,正面去翻译行不通,通过视觉转换,往往可以柳暗花明又一村。比如“闲人免入”,有考生理解为“不在我们公司工作的闲杂人员不准进来”并照此译成“Those who do not work in our company are not allowed to enter.”。这样的译文显得非常啰嗦,根本不符合标识语简洁明了的特点。其实同样的意思英文里用“staff only”来表示。两者意思一致,只是表达的角度不一样,同样的还有:No Rough handling可译为“小心轻放”;Wet Paint可译为“油漆未干”;Please tender exact fare可译为“恕不找零”等。再如:

Identification cards already are required here for most persons to enter their workplace, take an airplane flight or go into a public building. (2002年9月中级口译真题)

考生译文:这里的大部分人进入他们的工作场所、搭乘一个飞机航班或进入公共大楼,身份证已经需要被出示了。

分析:从上面译文可以看出这位考生理解原文基本上没有问题,原文的大意得到传递,但是读起来总觉得不是很舒服,这里除了个别用词不够简练外,另一个重要原因就是原文的被动语态被忠实地译为“……已经需要被出示了”,汉语里的被字句远没有英语的被动语态使用那么广泛,很多被动翻译成汉语时,都需要转换视角,翻译成主动的。

参考译文:这里大部分人进入工作场所、乘飞机或进入公共大楼,已经需要出示身份证了。

4.语序调整

长句的翻译是历年中高级口译考试翻译部分考查的重点,对于每一个英语句子的翻译,并不是使用一种翻译方法,而是多种翻译方法的综合运用,这在英语长句的翻译中表现得尤为突出。长句在正式文体中的出现极为频繁,因此也就成为中高级口译考试的重点。在翻译长句时,首先,不要因为句子太长而产生畏惧心理,因为,无论是多么复杂的句子,它都是由一些基本的成分组成的。英语习惯于用长的句子表达比较复杂的概念,而汉语则不同,常常使用若干短句,作层次分明的叙述。因此,在进行英译汉时,要特别注意英语和汉语之间的差异,将英语的长句分解,翻译成汉语的短句。然后分析几层意思之间的相互逻辑关系,再按照汉语的特点和表达方式,对语序进行调整,正确地译出原文的意思。

参考译文:垃圾邮件五花八门,既包括健身美体广告,也包括优惠的按揭贷款广告。(加州)的打击力度十足,但这也引起了美国商会和大公司的不满。

例2:上海经济高速发展,社会秩序稳定,人民安居乐业,呈现出一片繁华气象。(2006年3月中级口译试题)
考生译文:The economy is developing rapidly,the social order is stable,and the people live and work in peace and contentment, presenting a scene of prosperity.

分析:有不少考生在翻译此句时都像这样在语序上没有作任何调整,把前面三部分翻译成三个简单句,后面用分词结构。这样的表达显得非常幼稚,没有主次之分,是带着浓郁中文特色的英文。其实这句话的主语应该确定为Shanghai,意思的中心应该是“(上海)呈现出一片繁华气象”,因此应该将其翻译成主句或主干部分,而前面三个并列成分是“繁华气象”的具体表现,可以利用词性转换的技巧将这些动宾搭配翻译成名词短语用with连接,放在picture of prosperity之后作定语,全句可改译如下。

改译:Shanghai presents a picture of prosperity with its rapid economic development, social stability and peaceful and satifactory life of its residents.

当然,真正伟大的翻译家是不会讲究这么多的技巧,翻译技巧的最高境界也就是没有技巧,能够随心所以变而通之。所谓“大道无术”就是这个道理。当然要达到这样的境界需要大量翻译实践的磨练。对于我们缺乏翻译实践的广大考生而言,通过对历年真题和翻译课本中的一些典型句子进行翻译,潜心分析其中运用到的翻译技巧,用心体会其中的规律和方法,不失为提高翻译水平和应试能力的一条捷径。以上提到的四条翻译技巧正是中高口考试中最为重要的,也是最为常用的,若能融会贯通、灵活运用,翻译部分的得分必定会有大幅度的提高。

 

 

considering the following statements, made by the same man eight years apart. “eventually, being ‘poor’ won’t be as much a matter of living in a poor country as it will be a matter of having poor skills.” that was bill gates talking in 1992. way back then, the microsoft chairman’s image was that of a rather harsh getword("harsh"); , libertarian-leaning fellow who proudly declare his products alone would “change the world”.

yes, even bill gates, the iconic capitalist of our day, seems to have come around. the self-assured gates of 1992 was obviously a man of his times, confident of his industry’s ability to change the world, certain that the power of markets and new technology, once unleashed, would address most of the world’s ills. but the most skeptical gates of the new millennium getword("millennium"); is someone who evinces a passion for giving and government aid. he shares a growing realization, even in the multibillionaire set, that something is amiss with the ideology that has prevailed since the end of the cold war: global-capitalism-as-panacea.

分析:

① considering the following statements, made by the same man eight years apart. “eventually, being ‘poor’ won’t be as much a matter of living in a poor country as it will be a matter of having poor skills.”

译文:我们可以体会一下同一个人在相隔八年前后的说词。 // 请思考一下同一个人现在及八年前说的话。“说到底,‘贫穷’与其说是生活在贫穷的国家里,还不如说是所拥有的技术低劣 / 拥有低劣的技术 / 技艺不精。”

考点: 转性译法:形容词 → 名词 poor→ 贫穷

比较级的用法:not as/so much a as b = not a as much b→ 肯定 b ,否定 a

eg. it is not advice as much as approval that he seeks. 与其说他在征求意见,不如说他在期望得到赞同 / 首肯。

a matter of sth/doing sth→ 与 …… 有关的情况或问题

eg. dealing with these problems is all a matter of experience. 处理这些问题全凭经验。

正反译法:having poor skills→ 拥有低劣的技术(正译)

→ 技术不精(反译)

② that was bill gates talking in 1992.

译文:那是比尔 · 盖茨 1992 年的说词 / 说的话。

③ way back then, the microsoft chairman’s image was that of a rather harsh, libertarian-leaning fellow (who proudly declare his products alone would “change the world”.)

译文:想当年,微软公司董事长的形象雷厉风行 / 不苟言笑、天马行空 / 有自由论倾向,他得意地宣称仅靠自己的产品就能“改变世界”。

考点: chairman: permanent president of a committee, board of directors of a company, etc. 董事长

libertarian: one who believes in freedom of action and thought. 自由论者:信仰行动和思想自由的人

正反译法: harsh→ 雷厉风行(正译)

→ 不苟言笑(反译)

具体译法:成语法 harsh→ 雷厉风行;不苟言笑

libertarian-leaning→ 天马行空

定语从句的翻译:重复法

④ yes, even bill gates, the iconic capitalist of our day, seems to have come around.

译文:诚然如此,即使身为当代资本家楷模 / 典范的比尔  盖茨,也似乎改变了想法 // 似乎也不可能一成不变。

考点: icon: one who is the object of great attention and devotion; an idol: 偶像

转性译法:形容词 → 名词 iconic→ 偶像

正反译法: come around→ 改变了想法(正译)

→ 不可能一成不变(反译)

⑤ the self-assured gates of 1992 was obviously a man of his times, confident of his industry’s ability to change the world, certain that the power of markets and new technology, once unleashed, would address most of the world’s ills.

译文: 1992 年那个踌躇满志的盖茨显然是属于那个时代的,他坚信他从事的行业有能力改变这个世界,(坚信)市场和新技术的能量一旦得到释放,就可以解决世上大多数问题。

考点: 增词译法: confident of→ (他)坚信

his industry→ 他(从事)的行业

转性译法:名词 → 动词 his industry’s ability→ 他从事的行业有能力

形容词 → 动词 confident, certain→ 坚信

unleash: set off address: deal with ill: problem

⑥ but the most skeptical gates of the new millennium is someone (who evinces a passion for giving and government aid.)

译文:但新千年盖茨对此持怀疑态度,热衷于施舍和政府援助。

考点: skeptical→ 偏向于不相信

suspicious→ 偏向于相信

evince: show or demonstrate clearly; manifest.

eg. he evinced great sorrow. → 他表示遗憾。

his conversation evinces great courage. → 他的谈话显示了很大的勇气。

句式转换:形容词短语 → 主谓短语 the most skeptical gates→ 盖茨对此持怀疑态度

转性译法:名词 → 动词 passion→ 热衷于

定语从句的翻译:省略法

⑦ he shares a growing realization, even in the multibillionaire set, that something is amiss with the ideology (that has prevailed since the end of the cold war: global-capitalism-as-panacea.)

译文:即便拥有数十亿资产 // 即便已成为亿万富翁,盖茨越来越意识到冷战结束以来盛行的意识形态即 / ——“全球资本主义是万灵药”是欠缺的 / 不完善的 / 一定有不当之处。

考点: 转性译法:名词 → 动词 realization→ 意识到 end→ 结束

形容词 → 副词 growing→ 越来越

介词 → 动词 in→ 拥有;成为

形容词 → 名词 amiss→ 不当之处

multibillion→< 英 > 数万亿的 < 美 > 数十亿的

set: position; situation

amiss: not perfect

错误程度: blunder>bumble>falsity>balk(baulk)>slip (谈话或写作中的小错误)>foible

过失程度: clanger>gaffe>misfeasance (不法行为;不当行为) >misstep (失足) >lapse>defect>demerit>blame

定语从句的翻译:前置 后置法


translations test (2) (30 minutes)

长期以来,科学与艺术之间的关系一直是剃头担子一头热:科学热恋着艺术,艺术却拒科学与千里之外。

许多大科学家一生钟爱艺术,且懂艺术,从中汲取养料,善养浩然之气,或得到人生最大安慰。相反,热爱自然科学并且理解工程技术的文学艺术家真可谓凤毛麟角。

艺术家对自然科学望而生畏,敬而远之,原因之一是里面有一大堆高深的数学公式。其实,撇开数学,绕过那一大堆公式,一门学科的基本思想还是可以被我们理解和欣赏的。这恰如我们虽然看不懂莫扎特乐曲的总谱,却照样能同它的主旋律产生共鸣,击节称赞。

分析:

① 长期以来,科学与艺术之间的关系一直是剃头担子一头热:科学热恋着艺术,艺术却拒科学与千里之外。

译文: for a long time, the relationship between science and art has been that of partial /one-sided enthusiasm. that is, science is passionately in love with art while art is arrogant and unapproachable to science/ gives science the cold shoulder/keeps away from science.

考点: 转性译法:动词 → 名词 热恋着 →passionately in love with

俗语的翻译

② 许多大科学家一生钟爱艺术,且懂艺术,从中汲取养料,善养浩然之气,或得到人生最大安慰。

译文: many great scientists love art fondly and cherish it//cherish and appreciate art, from which they derive rich nourishment so as to cultivate their noble spirit/loftiness/moral force or get the greatest comfort from life.

考点: 断句译法

定语从句的译法:省略法

表示“熟练”的讲法: be good at / proficient, skilled, expert, masterly, adept, adroit getword("adroit"); , versed, practised, accomplished in

③ 相反,(热爱自然科学并且理解工程技术的)文学艺术家真可谓凤毛麟角。

译文: conversely/on the contrary, a literary artist who loves natural science and understands engineering technology is regarded as a rarity of rarities.

考点: 定语从句的翻译:前置法

④ 艺术家对自然科学望而生畏,敬而远之,原因之一是里面有一大堆高深的数学公式。

译文: one of the reasons why artists stand in awe// are filled with awe before natural science and keep respectfully aloof from it lies in a lot of abstruse/ambiguous mathematical formulas in natural science.

考点: 定语从句的翻译

意译:一大堆 → a lot of> a huge stack

“高深的”: abstract, ambiguous, obscure, recondite, vague, esoteric getword("esoteric"); , arcane, occult, mysterious, perplexing, incomprehensible, unfathomable, profound, remote, subtle 黑体为正反译法的反译

⑤ 其实,撇开数学,绕过那一大堆公式,一门学科的基本思想还是可以被我们理解和欣赏的。

译文: to be frank, if we leave aside mathematics and bypass/detour/go round/ round the abundant formulas, the basic principles/essence of the discipline (of natural science) are understandable and appreciable// we can understand and appreciate the basic principles/essence of the discipline.

考点: 增词译法:增加主语和连词 撇开数学 →(if we) leave aside mathematics

增加定语 一门学科 →the discipline (of natural science)

⑥ 这恰如我们虽然看不懂莫扎特乐曲的总谱,却照样能同它的主旋律产生共鸣,击节称赞。

译文一: this is the similar case when the main melody can resonate powerfully/evoke a strong echo for us to clap our hands in admiration despite our disability to understand the score of mozart’s musical pieces.

译文二: this is the similar case when we are able to give a passionate response to its main melody and great admire the music although we are ignorant of/read nothing of the score of mozart’s musical pieces.

考点: 正反译法:看不懂 →be ignorant of (正译)

→read nothing of/not understand

转性译法:动词 → 名词 看不懂 →disability to understand

换序译法

 

 

作业 (4.17)

一. 西方教育理念强调亲情、呵护、鼓励。中国传统教育理念是“严”在其表,爱在其里。中国式“家严”是父子互动的一种外在动作,慈爱是核心,爱护是目的。俗话说:“父不慈,子不孝”。父亲不慈爱,不负责,所以孩子不出色、不优秀,也不孝敬、依恋父亲。但是,“父母爱如虎,爱谁谁受苦”,对孩子无原则的表扬、鼓励,过度的溺爱、放纵,有可能培养一个无知无能、无所事事、愚钝麻木、胸无大志的庸子,也有可能培养一个目中无人、狂妄自大、无法无天的逆子。所以,严与慈的尺度很难把握,过严压抑个性,过慈助长恶习。

Once again, science supports what your grandmother told you: A good night's sleep helps your body fight a cold.
  People who averaged fewer than seven hours of sleep per night in the weeks before being exposed to the cold virus were nearly three times as likely to get sick as those who averaged eight hours or more, a new study found.
  Researchers used frequent telephone interviews to track the sleep habits of more than 150 men and women aged 21 to 55 over the course of a few weeks. Then they exposed the subjects to the virus, quarantined them for five days and kept track of who got sick.
  Besides sleeping more, sleeping better also seemed to help the body fight illness: Patients who fared better on a measure known as 'sleep efficiency' - the percentage of time in bed that you're actually sleeping - were also less likely to get sick.
  The results held true even after researchers adjusted for variables such as body-mass index, age, sex, smoking and pre-existing antibodies to the virus.
  Like your grandmother, the researchers aren't exactly sure why sleeping better makes you less likely to develop a cold. But they do take a stab at the answer: 'Sleep disturbance influences the regulation of proinflammatory cytokines, histamines, and other symptom mediators that are released in response to infection.' In plain English, maybe tossing and turning when you're infected with the cold virus contributes to the symptoms that define a cold.
  The researchers were based at Carnegie Mellon, the University of Pittsburgh and the University of Virginia, and the study was funded by the National Institutes of Health.

Western family educational concepts lay stress on love, care and encouragement. However, Chinese family educational concepts set store by a combination of toughness and tenderness. In Chinese family, strictness is what's on a father's face, while caring love is what's in a father's face. As the proverb puts it, "Sour grapes can never make sweet wine". If a father is unloving and undutiful, his child will end up as a good-for-nothing who behaves improperly toward and keeps apart from his father. On the contrary, another saying may go: "How sharper than a tiger's jaw it is to have permissive parents". Indiscriminate praise and encouragement, over coddle and overindulgence might lead to a child being ignorant, stupid, unfeeling, shiftless, and likely to be arrogant and disobedient. Therefore, walking the middle ground between dominance and permissiveness is difficult for a father, for strictness in excess suppresses child's individuality, while affection to a fault encourages bad habits in child.

 

  科学调查又一次证实了老祖母们的说法:一夜好睡眠,感冒挡在门外面。
  一项新的研究发现,那些在接触感冒病毒前的一周内平均每晚睡眠时间不足7小时的人患病几率是睡眠不少于8小时的人的近3倍。
  研究人员通过经常性的电话访问跟踪了150多名21-55岁年龄段的人(有男有女)几周内的睡眠习惯。然后让这些研究对象接触感冒病毒,隔离5天之后,看看哪些人患上了感冒。
  除延长睡眠时间外,提高睡眠质量看起来也有助于人体抵抗疾病。那些在“睡眠效率”评测中表现较好的病人患病的几率也较低。“睡眠效率”是受访者睡下后实际“睡着”的时间所占的百分比。
  即便是在研究人员将身高体重指数(BMI)、年龄、性别、是否吸烟以及是否早有抗体等因素考虑进来进行调整之后,这个结论仍然成立。
  和老祖母们一样,研究人员也不能肯定为什么睡得好能降低患感冒的几率。不过他们猜测原因可能是:睡眠不良会影响人体对促炎细胞因子、组胺和其他为应对病毒感染而释放的症状调节因子的调节。说白了,就是染上感冒病毒后睡觉时的辗转反侧可能是造成感冒症状的原因之一。
  这项研究是由来自卡内基梅隆大学、匹兹堡大学和弗吉尼亚大学的人员完成的,研究经费由美国国家卫生研究院(National Institutes of Health)提供。

标签:高口 高口翻译
18
2010-08-25 14:21 编辑:juliatt
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