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【翻译辅导】中级口译知识:英译汉部分试题评析

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成功考生应具备的条件

  英译汉是一种跨语言、跨文化、跨社会的交际活动过程。作为一个成功的考生,首先要通晓英汉两种语言。在翻译时能比较快速自如地在英汉两种语言间进行转换;其次要了解英译汉测试的评分标准,测试要求、目的、题型及选材原则;最后,通过考前复习,了解英译汉测试的难点,掌突破该难点的应试技巧。

  英译汉评分要求

  翻译原则本无定论。然而,本项考试英译汉的评分标准主要倾向于“忠实”与“通顺”并举。也就是说,英语文本能否以直译的类型。具体要求为:内容完整、准确。基本无遗漏或错译,表达流利,语言基本无错误。

  英译汉测试题型及选材原则

  英译汉测试题型为主观试题,一般由5~8个句子组成两个段落的一篇文章(长度约为250词)。由此可见,英译汉的难处在于翻译结构相对复杂的长句。

  选材原则取自近年国外英语书报杂志,内容涉及国际知识。外交关系。英美国家的政治、经济、社会、文化、法律或历史,而且是正统的英文。由于考试选材的与时俱进,因此考生必须关心国内外的时势。对国内外所发生的一些重大事件有所了解。背景知识的丰富是理解英文文章的关键。建议考生经常阅读英语国家的报刊和杂志,如《New York Times》《Washington Post》《The Times》等。

  结构复杂长句的翻译

  翻译结构复杂的长句,应首先弄清英文句子各个成分之间的相互关系。在准确理解句子完整意思的基础上,按汉语所习惯的时间顺序和逻辑思维顺序,译成符合汉语表达习惯的文字。由于英语的状语位置灵活。可放在句首、句尾或句子中间,定语又有前置定语、后置定语和同位语。翻译长句时,不可能把英语原句的结构转换成与其一模一样的汉语句子。考生须对英文原句的内容按语段进行拆分,而后按汉语表达方式,将拆分后的各部分内容重新整合成意思与英语原句完全相同的句子。通过对考生试卷的分析,有一定英文基础,又掌握了这种“拆分—整合”的翻译技巧的考生都能将英文长句的意思忠实而又通顺地翻译出来,取得成功。

  句子“拆分”

  (1) The expansion and increase have produced technicians, etc. who are employed by men. (2) These people that they deal with symbols and ideas have become the engineer. (3) Intellectuals are free from daily work, they carry load and enjoy grants and subsidies.//

  (4) The budget is the base that supports his independence. (5) The budget sustains both the existence and fiscal solvency, which takes a percentage. (6) The feature is that it is given on a basis so that the independence rests upon capacity. (7) The ability is a talent.//

  考生如果遇到这样的英译汉试题,一定会觉得主考教师发错了试卷,将高中生英文试卷误作中级口译试卷,其实这一试题就是2003年9月上海市英语中级口译资格证书第一阶段考试英译汉部分的试题,只不过在此做了“拆分”工作。全真试题如下:

  (1) The expansion of the universities since the beginning of the World War II and the great increase in the number of college graduates and Ph. D‘ s have produced a corps of technicians, aids, speechwriters, symbol manufacturers, investigators and policy proposers who are now employed by practical men in all institutions.、

(2) These people,  called intellectuals in the sense that they deal with symbols and ideas, have become professionalized in ttctly the same sense as the engineer.

  (3) Unlike the engineer, however, these professional intellectuals are free from much of the routine grind of daily work: they carry light teaching load and enjoy government and foundation grants and subsidies for their research.

  (4) The professor‘s project budget is the initial economic base that supports his independence within the university.

  (5) The project budget sustains both the existence of graduate students and the fiscal solvency of the university, which takes percentage “overhead” out of every project budget.

  (6) The major feature of project money,  whether its source is government or business, is that it is given on a contractual basis, a different contract for each project, so that the investigator‘s independence rests upon his capacity to secure a succession of contracts.

  (7) The ability to secure contracts is a genuine talent among professional intellectuals.

  句子“整合”及评析

  句子“拆分”使考生有了翻译的总体思路,但考生还须掌握句子“整合”技能,才能既忠实又通顺地进行翻译,现逐句点评如下:

  (1)自二战开始以来(时间状语前置),大学的扩招以及大学毕业生和博土生的大量增加(并列主语),产生了一大批技术人员、助理、演说词撰稿人、符号编制人、调查研究人员和政策建议人(并列宾语),他们目前在各个机构中受雇于具有实际工作经验的人(定语从句被动语态)。

  (2)这些从事符号和思想工作而被称为知识分子的人(过去分词作定语),如工程师一样变成了职业人士(the same…as)。

标签:中口 中口翻译
13
2010-08-25 13:55 编辑:mavis1114
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