在线词典,在线翻译

【翻译辅导】高级口译翻译部分之学习(三)

所属:口译 阅读:6643 次 评论:0 条 [我要评论]  [+我要收藏]

 II、汉译英的例子
东方明珠广博电视塔位于黄浦江畔、浦东陆家嘴嘴尖上,塔高468米,三面环水,与外滩的万国建筑博览群隔江相望,是亚洲第一、世界第三的高塔。设计者富于幻想地将11个大小不一、高底错落的球体从蔚兰的空中串联至如茵的绿色草地上,而两颗红宝石般晶莹夺目的巨大球体被高高托起,整个画面浑然一体,充满了 “大珠小珠落玉盘”的诗情画意。  (选自英语高级口译资格证书考试《翻译教程》)

译文:The Huangpu River twists sharply to form a duck-beak-shaped area called Lujiazui on its east. At the point of the beak stands abruptly the radio and television tower ——Oriental Pearl, which, with its height of 468 meters, is the highest tower in Asia and the third highest in the world. It is surrounded on three sides by the waters of the River, and looks onto the row of buildings in multinational styles of architecture along the Bund on the other side of the River. In the designer's fanciful imagination, eleven spheres are arranged in a line and hung from the blue sky down to a carpet of green lawns like a string of pearls, with two colossal splashy ruby-like spheres held high on it. The entire tower is harmonious in architecture and presents a picture which arouses the poetic and artistic imagination of “large and small jewels falling onto an enormous jade plate.”

分析:原文两句。第一句写明珠塔的地理位置与外观。第二句写设计与联想。第一句先讲塔的座落位置,再讲塔高,再讲近处周围环境,再讲远处的外滩,再回过头来讲塔高在世界上的排名。第二句想象先写整体再讲特征性的两个大球体,再讲整个塔给人的感受。思维线路是螺旋形的。翻译时保持其先写座落与外观,再写联想的思路,但是每一句内部的思想点重新组合,排列,使其思路成直线,而且使英语句子前后紧扣。原文“东方明珠广播电视塔位于黄浦江畔、浦东陆家嘴嘴尖上”是笼统的虚笔描写,译文用实笔译出,勾勒出电视塔座落的形势图。 “塔高468米”是原因,“亚洲第一、世界第三”是结果,所以翻译时语序上调整,把它们放到一起。

四、翻译中比较语言学的运用

翻译的时侯除了把握英、汉两种语言在思维逻辑上的差别从整体上进行宏观设计外,也必须有意识地把英、汉两种语言在比较语言学上的差别在语言结构上科学、合理、巧妙地进行微观处理。

I、比较语言学思考在英译汉中的运用

1、英译汉时思考的基本单位是英语句子

由于英语的思维逻辑是直线式的,所以一个英语段落里的英语句子总是后一句紧扣前一句,句句紧扣。就象一条铁练一环扣一环。而且书写英语的句子结构通常比较复杂,也比较长。因此,英译汉时以英语句子作为思考的单位比较合理。当然这并不排除个别时候把几个英语短句译成一个汉语句子。

2、英译汉时要注意英语句子里各句子成份的位置排列在汉语中的变动

由于英语句子内部各成分之间的逻辑关系主要靠语法结构和逻辑连接词,而汉语句子内部各成分之间的逻辑关系主要不是靠句子结构和逻辑连接词,而是靠约定俗成的排列顺序,所以翻译时要特别注意语序处理。许多翻译的败笔常常败在不能看破英语和汉语在思维逻辑和语序结构上的差别,不善于重新排序。

例一:

The English arrived in North America with hopes of duplicating the exploits of the Spanish in South America, where explorers had discovered immense fortunes in gold and silver. Although Spain and England shared a pronounced lust for wealth, differences between the two cultures were profound. (选自英语高级口译资格证书考试《翻译教程》第一版第59页)

原译:英国人抱着和西班牙人开拓南美洲一样的期望来到北美洲,此之前西班牙的探险者在南美洲发现了大批金银财宝。虽然西班牙和英国都同样明显地贪图财富,但是两国的文化却存在着根本的差别

改译:西班牙的探险者在南美洲发现了黄金白银发了大财,英国人抱着重新创造西班牙人在南美洲业绩的希望来到北美洲。虽然西班牙和英国都以贪财著称,但两国的文化却存在着很大的差异。

分析:原文第一句里where引导的定语从句里的动词的时态是过去完成式,说明其动作在主句动词表示的动作之前发生。尽管定语从句在后,译成汉语时要按照汉语的思维逻辑按时间顺序,先发生的事先讲。

例二:

The implied inclusion of books among the world's perishable goods is hardly made more agreeable by the reflection that increasing numbers of books these days do seem to be written with just such consumption in mind, and that most book-stores have become little more than glorified news stands for hardcover publications of this sort, which are merchandised for a few weeks —— sometimes only as long as they remain on the best-seller lists —— and are then retired to discount stores (those jumbled graveyards of books, so saddening to the hearts of authors) shortly before dropping out of print altogether. (选自英语高级口译资格证书考试《翻译教程》第二版第180页)

原译:不言而语地把书籍归入世界易损商品之列,一点不会因为人们想到如今越来越多的书确实是为了这样的消费而写的就令人感到舒心,也一点不会因为人们想到大多数书店已经变成仅仅是出售这类精装书的花里胡俏的书报摊就令人感到舒心,这类书卖不到几个星期——有时候只能维持到仍列入畅销书单这段日子——就会被打入折扣书店里(也就是令作者深感伤心的杂乱不堪的书堆),紧跟着也就完全绝版了。

改译:现在越来越多的书籍确实似乎是脑子里想着把它们当作应时消费品写出来的。现在大多数书店已经变成只不过是出售这类精装出版物的门面漂亮的书报摊。这类精装出版物只当几个星期的商品,有时只在它们还列在畅销书名单上时当作商品,然后退到折价书店(那些令作者们伤心的拥挤的书籍坟场),很快就彻底绝版了。想到上述情景而把书籍不言而语地把归入世界易腐商品之列很难使人心情舒畅。

分析:在英语句子中,by the reflection 是主句的方式状语,reflection 后面是两个that 连接的并列的同位语从句。按汉语的思维逻辑,通常是先状语,然后才是句子其他成分,所以翻译时首先考虑把方式状语by the reflection that……and……that先翻,再翻主句的主语和谓语部分。可是方式状语中reflection有两个同位语从句,而且很长。因此先翻两个同位语从句,再翻介词短语状语。具体翻译的时候,注意使用分句法,词性转译法等各种翻译技巧使译文通顺流畅。

II、比较语言学思考在汉译英中的运用

1、汉译英时思考的基本单位是汉语的段落

汉语的思维逻辑定势是螺旋式的,常常有跳跃和迂回。其次,汉语的句子通常较短,说明同一事物常常用数个短句从数个方面和角度展开。但是通常一个段落只有一个主题思想,这一点和英语是一致的。所以汉译英时以段落为单位统筹规划,选择设计能包容所有思想点,既不太大,又不太小,并且符合英语思维逻辑的英语句子结构把原文的意思表达出来

2、汉译英时要注意选择和设计好的英语句子结构

如前所述,汉语的逻辑关系主要靠约定俗成的语言排列顺序。好多情况下前言后语的逻辑关系是隐性的,不是靠逻辑关联词连接的。汉译英时,首先要看破这种逻辑关系,并思考英语里可以表达这些逻辑关系的手段,最后确定可以表达这些关系的英语结构把意思翻译出来。落笔书写英语句子时要抓住四个关键:结构、选词、时态、单复数。设计好的英语句子结构最关键,其次是选择合适的词放到句子结构中去,同时还要注意动词时态(因为汉语没有时态),并注意动词形式、代词和名词的单复数必须前后一致(这是因为汉语单复数不太讲究的缘故)。请看翻译实例。

例一:

上海航空公司自1985年成立的第一天起,就把保证飞行安全视作自己的生命线。八年

来,安全飞行无事故。上航的每一位职工为之骄傲,上航的机务人员更是倍受鼓舞。为了让飞机始终处于最佳状态,多少个日日夜夜,他们在停机坪上加班加点,连续奋战,以严谨务实的精神,开拓进取的气概为安全飞行作出了自己的贡献。(摘自《上海航空》1993年第六期总第而十二期第2页)

原译:Since the inception of Shanghai Airlines in 1985, it is lifeline to guarantee safety flight. SAL's staff and maintenance persons take pride in the record of safety flight to keep for 8 years, and it also inspires them. On apron SAL's maintenance persons day and night have done extra work and have hard worked so as to enable the airplanes to be in best condition. They, with serious as well as steady spirit and endeavor, make greater contributions to safety flight.

改译: The Shanghai Airlines have been regarding it their lifeline to ensure the safety of flight ever since their establishment in 1985. They have kept the record of zero accident for the past eight years, in which all the staff take great pride, and by which all the mechanical maintenance personnel are particularly inspired for it recalls to them the so many days and nights when they had to stay on the apron to do overtime work to keep the airplanes in best conditions. These maintenance personnel have made great contributions to the safety of flight through their pioneering spirit and strict perseverant work.

分析:原译的失误根源在于没有将汉语的段落作为翻译时思考的基本单位,不能看破汉语各思想点之间的逻辑关系并选用合适的英语结构来表达。而是以汉语句子为单位一句句硬译,不管英语的语言逻辑和语法通不通。

例二:

泰山为中国五岳之首,素有“天下第一山”之称。她集丽、幽、妙、奥、旷於一景,绘人、文、山、水、木於一图,宛如一座巨大的历史与艺术的天然博物馆

登游泰山是数千年来炎黄子孙的宿愿。多少帝王君主曾在此封禅设祭,文人墨客在此吟哦题咏,善男信女在此寻求神佑,寻常百姓在此畅游舒怀。

泰山之游,其乐无穷。

(摘自《上海航空》1993年第六期总第而十二期第31页)

原译:As natural museum of history and art. Mount Tai is the head of five famous Mount in China, called as first Mount.

To visit Mount Tai has been Chinese wish for thousands years. At Mount Tai many emperors held the sacrifice offerings, poets wrote the poems, superstitious persons blest and common people traveled.

To visit Mount Tai is happiest.

改译:Listed at the top of the five famous mountains of China, the Taishan Mountain has long been enjoying the reputation of “the first mountain under the heaven.” Combining beauty, calm, wonder, mystery and grandeur in one scene, and putting human, cultural stuff, mountain, water and wood in one picture, it seems to be a great natural museum of history and art.

For thousands of years, it has been the wish of most Chinese to climb and mount this mountain. Emperors came here to set altars to offer sacrifices to the heaven; scholars came here to chant poems; men of letters came here to make inscriptions; superstitious men and women came here to seek gods' blessing; ordinary secular people came here to experience the pleasure of travel.

Touring the Taishan Mountain is really exciting and rewarding.

分析:原文第一句逗号前是原因,逗号后是结果。译成英语原因部分用分词短语表达。第二句汉语有两个逗号分成三个部分,翻译时前两个部分用分词短语表达。用分词短语表示原因是书面英语语体,很适合汉语原文的文体。

例三:

徐家汇地区所处地理位置得天独厚,对外交通和区域交通均十分便利、发达。它是松江、奉贤、青浦、金山等卫星城镇进入市中心的咽喉,又是浙江、江西、安徽、福建等省进入上海的重要门户。徐家汇地区本身即将拥有上海最先进的五层立体交通网,即:地铁、下立交、地面、上立交、高架环路,四通八达的现代化立体交通网络,使徐家汇地区与上海市海、陆、空港及市中心区和浦东新区之间的交通十分畅通便捷,成为上海日益重要的交通枢纽。

原译:Downtown Xu Jia Hui of having convenient communication is the gateway into Shanghai from Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Anhui and Fujian province, and Songjiang, Qingpu and Jinshan county. Xu Jia Hui with update communication network of being the subway, overpass, ground and overhead circular road becomes important hub of communication in Shanghai.

改译:The district of Xu Jia Hui enjoys a unique geographic advantage. It has a developed and convenient transportation system which links it with other districts and suburbs of Shanghai, as well as the surrounding provinces. It is the throat through which vehicles from satellite towns such as Songjiang, Fengxian, Qinpu and Jinshan can get to the downtown of shanghai and also the gate through which those from Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Anhui and Fujian provinces can do so. The district itself will possess the most advanced quintuple-level transportation network of subways, underpasses, ground-level roads, overpasses and a circular viaduct, thus becoming a transportation hub of Shanghai that has easy access to the seaports, airports, railway stations, city center and  the new district of Pudong .

分析:第一句汉语讲了两个思想点:第一,地理位置得天独厚,第二,交通便利、发达。两个思想点是相互独立的,所以英语分成两个句子。第二句汉语里“卫星城镇进入市中心”,“省进入上海”这种语言表达逻辑汉语可以,英语不通,因此英语要加 vehicles,使符合英语思维逻辑。第二句和第三句汉语较长,通过分析其内部成分的逻辑关系,设计一个能包容全部内容,既不大也不小的两个英语句子结构把原文的意思贴切表达出来。另外,“徐家汇”三个字在段落中重复了三次。译成英语时,只在开头用“徐家汇” 以后都用代词it.

翻译是用目的语的语言把本源语的语言原原本本转换过来的艺术再创造过程。英语和汉语的巨大差别决定了翻译时宏观设计的必要性。侧重文体,文化,或者侧重词法、句法、成语等微观技巧处理,而忽略从比较语言学角度出发的宏观设计显然不能使译文完美,也不能有好的翻译效果。随着我国对外开放和对外交流的加强,翻译的量势必大大增加。进一步研究翻译的宏观设计和微观处理技巧,提高翻译质量和效果当是翻译界的一项重任。

标签:高口 高口翻译
16
2010-08-25 11:19 编辑:juliatt
分享到:
关注海词微博:
发表评论:
表达一些您的想法吧!已有0条评论>>
登录,再发表评论
文明上网,理性发言!
您可能还感兴趣的文章:
>>精华推荐阅读
热门评论文章