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人种有优越,智商各不同?

所属:生活杂谈 作者:网络转载 阅读:17673 次 评论:0 条 [我要评论]  [+我要收藏]

人种和智商息息相关的观点由来已久了——自奴隶社会和殖民主义那时就已有所闻。而对于这种伪科学的形式,达尔文初涉,丘吉尔信奉,希特勒执行。
A study claiming people who live in countries where disease is rife have lower IQs is flawed on many levels of a link between nationality and intelligence has a long pedigree – certainly as ancient as slavery and colonialism. And in its faux-scientific form, well, Darwin dabbled, Churchill embraced and Hitler implemented.
而最近,曾经提出人类进化会携带强奸遗传素质观点(这个观点引起了一个问题,为什么这种基因在塞尔维亚或南非比在坦桑尼亚或瑞典更为盛行)的新墨西哥大学的兰迪•桑希尔(Randy Thornhill)又有了新的重大发现。
The latest burst comes from Randy Thornhill of the University of New Mexico, who once proposed the idea that men evolved with a genetic predisposition to rape (raising the question of why these genes are so much more prevalent in, say, Serbia or South Africa, than Tanzania or Sweden).
他和他的团队带着他们的最新观点重出江湖:传染病率和国民IQ值有直接挂钩。
He and his team are back with their latest idea: a direct link between levels of infectious disease and average national IQ.
他们对此的解释无懈可击——当孩子们积累能量来抵抗传染病时,大脑的发展必定要做出点牺牲。但是根据世界健康组织的数据与IQ分值的比照结果,他们关于种族智力水平的证据却疑点重重。很明显关联和原因是两回事。换句话说,很可能还有一系列其他原因,使得传染病盛行的国家的国民对IQ测试不甚擅长。
Their underlying case is perfectly valid – when children devote energy to fighting infection, brain development is sometimes sacrificed. But their evidence at a national level is more dubious, based on comparing World Health Organisation data with average IQ scores. The obvious point is that correlation is not the same thing as causation. In other words, there might be a range of other reasons why people in disease-ridden countries don't excel in IQ tests.
还有一点值得指出的是很多气候温暖的国家(这些国家有一些是在瘴气盛行的区域——而瘴气却正是桑希尔指出的影响智力的关键疾病之一)都是文明的起源,如美索不达米亚、中国、埃及、希腊。
And it is also worth pointing out that it has been warmer countries (some in malaria zones – a key disease highlighted by Thornhill) that have been the catalyst for civilisation: Mesopotamia, China, Egypt, Greece.
并且对于桑希尔固执的相信IQ可以测出“具体的普遍智力”而非仅仅测出做IQ题的能力,这点也有很多著名的反对理论。
But a more profound objection relates to Thornhill's obdurate belief that IQ is a true measure of "crystallised general intelligence" rather than just a measure of ability to perform in IQ tests.
其中最为致命的理论来自于新西兰学者吉姆•弗林那已经问世20多年的“弗林效应”:在大多数国家,IQ测试的成绩都是越来越好的。如果一个世纪前的美国儿童做如今的IQ测试,他们的平均成绩将低于70;而英国自战后以来,IQ的平均水平上升了27个点。
The killer blow was delivered more than 20 years ago by the New Zealand academic Jim Flynn, who proved that average IQ test scores increased progressively in most countries (now known as the "Flynn effect"). If American children of a century ago took IQ tests of today their average score would be well below 70. In Britain, the average IQ has risen by 27 points since the war.
有新兴的科学观点人为人类的智力在最近的45000年抑或更久的年限内,不大可能出现过进化(举例说明,在开普敦曾发现一块雕刻的赭石匾,其内含符号设计都非常复杂,而经过碳十四检测,它至少有了7万年的历史)。
The reason has nothing to do with evolution. In fact, there is an emerging scientific consensus that human intelligence is unlikely to have evolved over the last 45,000 years, and perhaps more (for example, an engraved ochre plaque found near Cape Town, containing intricate symbolic designs, was carbon-dated at more than 70,000 years).
根据弗林的观点,一代代人IQ的提升是由不断增强的抽象逻辑能力所引起。还有一些其他的可能原因,如营养状况,受教育程度,环境刺激和更加熟悉IQ测试题方式。比较不同种族的平均IQ水平是毫无意义的,因为他们不可能每个影响因素都相同。
According to Flynn, generational rises are prompted by increased exposure to abstract logic. Other reasons might include nutrition levels, time spent in school, environmental stimuli and familiarity with aptitude testing. It makes no sense to compare average IQ scores of different populations because they are unlikely to have identical exposure to all of these factors.
所以当我们提及,一般德系犹太人和中国人的平均IQ比埃塞俄比亚黑人和英国白人高时,这并不意味着这些种族与生俱来就比其他种族聪慧。
So while it might be true that, on average, Ashkenazi Jews or Chinese people have higher average IQs than Ethiopians or Caucasian Britons, this does not mean that one group is innately more intelligent than another.
然而这恰恰是理查德•林恩(Richard Lynn)和其他进化心理学家,如史蒂文•平克(Steven Pinker)的争论所在——一个基于不足可信的IQ观点和对进化理论的误读的结合体。
Yet this is precisely what Richard Lynn (quoted in the article) and other evolutionary psychologists such as Steven Pinker have argued – a perspective based on combining a discredited view of IQ with a faulty grasp of evolutionary theory.
桑希尔传染病因素假设并不会有很多异议,但是他一味沉溺于这种假设的故事逻辑,而推测所有的种族都得以脑力发展为代价而调适他们的免疫系统的话,那这只是一个可怕的古代观念的现代版本罢了。
Thornhill's disease-based hypothesis is less objectionable, but he is indulging in just-so story logic when he extends this to speculating that whole nations have adapted their immune systems at the expense of their brains: a modern version of a horribly ancient conclusion.
标签:智商 人种
151
2010-08-24 22:46 编辑:kuaileyingyu
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