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2011考研英语完型模拟试题12篇附答案及全文翻译(九)

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 九、罗马人的建国

  The success of Augustus owed much to the character of Roman theorizing about the state. The Romans did not produce ambitious blueprints1 the construction of idea__l__ states,such as__2__ to the Greeks. With very few exceptions,Roman theorists ignored,or rejected__3__ valueless,intellectual exercises like Plato‘s Republic,in__4__ the relationship of the individual to the state was__5__ out painstakingly without reference to__6__ states or individuals. The closest the Roman came to the Greek model was Cicero’s De Re Publica,and even here Cicero had Rome clearly in __7__. Roman thought about the state was concrete,even when it__8__ religious and moral concepts. The first ruler of Rome,Romulus,was__9__ to have received authority from the gods,specifically from Jupiter,the“guarantor”of Rome. All constitutional__10__was a method of conferring and administering the__11__. Very clearly it was believed that only the assembly of the__12__,the family heads who formed the original senate,__13__the religious character necessary to exercise authority,because its original function was to__14__the gods. Being practical as well as exclusive,the senators moved__15__to divide the authority,holding that their consuls,or chief officials,would possess it on__16__months,and later extending its possession to lower officials.__17__the important achievement was to create the idea of continuing__18__authority embodied only temporarily in certain upper-class individuals and conferred only__19__the mass of the people concurred. The system grew with enormous __20__,as new offices and assemblies were created and almost none discarded.

  1.[A] with [B] for [C] in [D] to

     2. [A] tempted [B] attracted [C] appealed [D] transferred

  3. [A] on [B] for [C] as [D] about

  4. [A] which [B] that [C] what [D] it

  5. [A] turned [B] worked [C] brought [D] made

  6. [A] special [B] specific [C] peculiar [D] particular

  7. [A] existence [B] store [C] reality [D] mind

  8. [A] abandoned [B] caught [C] separated [D] involved

  9. [A] told [B] held [C] suggested [D] advised

  10. [A] tendency [B] procedure [C] development [D] relation

  11. [A] authority [B] power [C] control [D] ruling

  12. [A] officers [B] men [C] administrators [D] fathers

  13. [A] possessed [B] claimed [C] assured [D] enforced

   14. [A] confirm [B] confer [C] consult [D] consider

  15. [A] over [B] along [C] on [D] about

  16. [A] alternate [B] different [C] varied [D] several

  17. [A] And [B] So [C] Or [D] But

   18. [A] state [B] country [C] people [D] national

  19. [A] as [B] when [C] if [D] so

  20. [A] dimension [B] complexity [C] exercise [D] function

  答案

  1. B 2. C 3. C 4. A 5. B 6. D 7.D 8.D 9. B 10. C

  11. A 12. D 13.A 14.C 15. C 16. A 17. D 18. A 19. B 20. B

  总体分析

  本文介绍了罗马人有关国家建设的理论。第一句指出罗马人有关国家形成的理论很有特 点。第二句至第五句指出,罗马人的理论与希腊人的大不相同,是非常具体的。第六句至文章结尾具体阐述了罗马人关于国家权力的所有和分配形式。

   全文翻译

  奥古斯都(罗马帝国第一代皇帝)的成功很大程度上归功于罗马人将国家理论化的特点。罗马人没有制定出让希腊人感兴趣的建设理 想国家的宏伟蓝图。在柏拉图的《理想国》中不涉及具体个人或国家的一种个人与国家之间的关系被详细地设计出来,但罗马理论家们几乎无一例外地忽视或拒绝接 受像《理想国》这样的智力训练,认为它们毫无价值。罗马人最接近希腊模式的是西塞罗的《论国家》,甚至在这本书中西塞罗的心中已经对罗马有了非常清楚的想 法。即使涉及到宗教和道德概念,罗马人关于国家的想法也是具体的。罗马的第一位统治者罗穆卢斯被认为从神,尤其是从罗马的守护神宙斯那里获得了权力。所有 宪法的发展都是一种赋予和监督这种权力的方法。很显然,人们相信只有先父们的立法机构,即一家之主们组成的最初的参议院,才拥有行使这种权力所必需的宗教 特质,因为它最初的功能是寻求神的启示。既实际又排外的参议员们将权力再进一步分割,认为他们的司法官或总管官员,将每隔一个月拥有这项权力,并在之后将 其拥有权扩大到更低等级的官员。但是重要的成就是创造了持续的国家权力的概念,这种权力只是临时体现在某些上层阶级的个人身上,并且只有当普通大众一致同 意的时候才被赋予。当新的部门和立法机构被创造出来并且几乎没有任何一个被摈弃的时候,这个系统变得越来越复杂。

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2010-08-23 16:42 编辑:mavis1114
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