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考研作文的开头和结尾的写作方法

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1.文章开头的写法

  (1)引言法

  在文章开头引用具有代表性的名人名言,既可吸引读者,又可以点题。如:

  “Be the first to be concerned with the world’s troubles and the last to enjoy worldly happiness.”Fan Zhongyan,a scholar of the Song Dynasty,expresses eloquently the lofty spirit of Chinese intellectuals in his maxim. On realizing that the cause of China’s lack of development was its backwardness in science and technology,many modern scholars accordingly went to Western countries to study.

  本段以“先天下之忧而忧,后天下之乐而乐”引出主旨,给人以深刻的印象。

  (2)提问法

  如: Why are foreigners so glad that barriers have been dismantled? China has a population of 1.2 billion,and US $1 000 billion of GDP. It is a country with one of the fastest economic growth rates in the world. China’s entry into the WTO will therefore enable all economic entities in the world to expand trade and investment,bringing benefits to enterprises,consumers and workers in these countries.

  (3)数据引用

  引用恰当的数据,使文章开头简洁、有力。对于表格式作文,常从描述、分析表格入手。如:

  It is reported that from 1995 to 1998,the number of cars in Shanghai rose at the rate of 20%,but the average speed of cars dropped at the rate of 30%. It should be noticed that 43% of added cars during the period of 1995~1998 is private cars. Therefore some people point out that the most effective way to solve the traffic problem is to ban private cars. But I think they have gone extremely far away.

  本段通过引用数据对私车增多及车速下降这一现象进行了详细的描述。通过分析,作者自然地引出观点:完全禁止私车是偏激的做法。

  (4)概要法

  开门见山,首先提出文章的主要观点,然后通过举例或逻辑推理等方法加以详述。如:

  This report is divided into three main sections: what equipment you need,how to use equipment,and how to maintain equipment.

  2.文章结尾的写法

  (1)总结法

  总结式结尾的作用在于回顾全文、突出中心,使读者对文章形成一个整体的把握。要想写好总结式结尾,就要求文章内容本身重点突出、中心明确,这样回顾起来才有点可抓。在写总结式结尾时,对于论证中提到的要点应该点到为止,而重在重申论点。如:

  On the whole,life in China has become better after 30 years,Ordinary people now enjoy a more colorful life than before. Though some problems have arisen in the progress,we still can’t deny this positive trend.

  (2)建议法

  针对文章前面的分析,提出相对应的号召或解决方案,表示对将来的期待或鼓动大家采取相应的行动。如:

  It is essential that effective measures should be taken to redress such inequality.

  It is high time that we should urge an immediate end to this phenomenon.

  (3)反问法

  在末尾加上反问,可使文章引人思考。如:

  Psychological health of the youth should be concerned by our society. On being advised by his school that he should leave after failing several exams,a Beijing university student decided to commit suicide,but first killed his father and grandmother so as to spare their grief at his own death. A 13-year-old Sichuan Province girl ran away from home recently in pursuit of her favorite movie star,and has not been seen since. Isn’t there anything wrong with psychological health of the youth?

  用反问句加深主题:年轻人的心理健康有些问题,应该得到更多关注。

  (4)引语法

  用引语归结全文,有画龙点睛的作用,使文章既生动,又有说服力。如:

  All of us wish for a bright future and hope to master a useful career. Those who persist in remaining idle will never fulfill their ambitions, “No pains,no gains” is a motto with much meaning. Meditate and live by it.

  以“不劳不得”做总结,很好地归纳了上文,给人以警示。

  (5)首尾呼应法

  在首尾两处点题,可以使段落的中心突出。如:

  China’s reforms have brought China a lot of benefits and have changed Chinese people’s life a great deal. A lively atmosphere has prevailed in all walks of fields throughout the country. The national economy has been thriving and national defense has ever been consolidated. In science and technology,quite a lot of achievements have been made. Certainly,the progress made in all fields has led to the raise of living standard for Chinese people.

  首尾均强调了一系列有利于社会进步的改革给中国人的生活带来的改变,重点突出。

 

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2010-08-23 15:56 编辑:eileen9
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