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考研作文的写作方法指导

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1.段落的作用

  首先,好的段落要求每段只能有一个主题,围绕一个中心思想展开。与中心不同的观点或无关的内容都应删去。其次,结构连贯:适当地运用过渡词指明文章内部的逻辑关系。

  Example 1

  Reforming and opening up have helped the villagers to live a comfortable life. (主题句) Before 1983 the village practiced a collective ownership system,whereby the villagers picked and baked tea leaves together.Life was hard and their income meager,so they had no incentive to work hard.“We got rich after the fields were parceled out to households in 1983,” says Sun Jinrong.Since then,the villagers have tilled their own plots.Having learned to follow the laws of the market economy and competition,their living standards have greatly improved.

  段首提出中心论点:改革开放使茶农过上了好日子。后按时间顺序,先描写1983年以前吃大锅饭的情形,又说改革开放后生活水平的提高。前后形成对比,充分说明论点。

  Example 2

  I hold the view that children can play computer games in their spare time,and the reasons are explored as follows. First, computer games should be played moderately,with the control of parents. It can help children to relax and improve their efficiency in their studies. Second,playing computer games moderately can offer children chances to develop their creativity,which is essential for their success in study. Third, playing computer games can broaden children’s knowledge. It is well-known that a machine will break down if it keeps running without a stop. Similarly, if a child keeps studying without relaxation,he will be tired out. And if a child spends all this time studying,he will become a dull boy in the ivory tower.

  本段开头点出中心,然后用过渡词指出三个原因。最后加以总结。文章结构一目了然。

  2.关于段落的写作方法

  (1)定义法

  当考生提出的概念或观点很抽象,涉及面广时,考生需要对概念进行解释,限定内容,从而缩小讨论的焦点。如:

  Ambition is like choler (胆汁),which is a humour,that makes men active,earnest,full of alacrity,and stirring,if it be not stopped. But if it be stopped,and cannot have its way,it becomes angry,and malign. So ambitious men,if they find the way open for their rising,and still get forward,they’re rather busy than dangerous; but if they be checked in their desires,they become secretly discontent,and look upon men and matters,with an evil eye.

  本文是对抱负/雄心的分析。而这个题目本身范围太广,因此作者先给它下了个定义,确定讨论的方向:抱负/雄心在不同条件下表现出来的不同特性。这样就缩小了讨论范围,确定了讨论的方向。

  当然作者也可通过从句来对事物进行定义和解释,如:

  Hemophilia is called the bleeder’s disease because the afflicted person’s blood is unable to clot.

  (2)时间、空间顺序法

  以事情发展的顺序,或时间的先后安排材料。在描写、分析社会变化的文章中常用顺序进行写作,同时也可以起到新旧对比论证的作用。如:

  Before a stop sign was put up, there were one hundred and twenty accidents there in a year. After a stop sign was put up,there were only forty accidents in a year. Having the stop sign there decreased the number of accidents immediately.

  文章用时间上的对比来论证了竖标牌的作用。通过时间顺序安排材料,结构清晰,论证了标牌的作用。

  当图画比较复杂,而且方位较强时,考生可按照空间顺序进行描述。这样,考生既可以对描写思路有所了解,又可使文章结构清晰。如:

  The kitchen was in a mess. Along the left wall were the counter and sink covered with dirty dishes and garbage. On the far wall the washing machine groaned under a load of filthy clothes. Right next to the door where I was standing,on my right,I saw a table cluttered with old newspapers,an overturned catsup bottle. At the far end of the right wall the refrigerator stood with door ajar. It was the messiest kitchen I had ever seen.

  (3)因果分析法

  这种方法是一种分析法,在阐释观点中常用。按因果关系的不同,可以分为一因一果、一因多果、一果多因。单一的因果关系往往用来分析简单的问题。而对于文章主要论点的分析,应采用一因多果、一果多因的方法,这样可以全方位多个角度透彻地分析问题。如:

  The Beijing subway is to adopt international signs.(主题句)The Chinese characters originally used for east,west,south and north are to be replaced by the letters A,B,C and D. The subway operator explained that the four Chinese characters indicating directions no longer meet the needs of passengers,given the diversity of subway stations and increases in the number of entrances and exits.(因)Therefore,universal signs used worldwide will be adopted.(果)

  文章分析了北京地铁采用国际化标志的原因,为一因一果的形式。再如:

  The main reason why professors should give frequent exams (果) is that when they do and when they provide feedback to students on how well they’re doing,students learn more in the course and perform better on major exams (原因1).Moreover,If students had frequent exams in all their courses,they would have to schedule study time each week and gradually would develop a habit of frequent study (原因2).

  作者采用一果多因的方法分析了教授应经常测试学生的原因。

  (4)例证法

  考生可以用他人的例子,自己的经历或名人的故事作为实例,来把论点具体化。从考生的作文中,我们可以看出,贴切、具有社会深度的例子可以有效地深化主题。为了能在考试中很好地举例,平时应对有社会意义的例子多加积累、分类。如:

  It is very difficult to evaluate another person’s performance objectively. For example,Jane recently wrote irresponsible remarks about her instructor because she was failing the course. Her friend Sam wrote a great description of the same instructor because he was receiving an A in the course. Both Jane and Sam were not fairly evaluating the instructor. They were influenced by the grades they were earning and were biased in their judgement.

  本段通过两个例子的对比,论证了很难客观地评价一个人。

  (5)分类法

  分类法是根据不同的类别来讨论,这可以使很复杂的内容变得层次清晰,论述更全面。如:

  “The wolf has come!” No one knows who gave the first warning,but it made a large impact on two main groups: the common people and entrepreneurs. The common people hoped that it would mean more inexpensive commodities,while entrepreneurs worried about encirclement by transnational companies.

  本段通过两种不同类型的人对同一问题的不同看法,表明不同的中国人对入世的不同期待和看法。

  (6)对比和对照法

  对比法比较的是事物的相同点;对照法比较的是事物的不同点。通过对比或对照熟悉和不熟悉的事物,考生可以了解不熟悉的事物;通过对比或对照相同点或不同点,考生可以更准确地评价事物。

要点式:先讲解两个事物在一点上的相同或不同点,再去讲解他们在另一点上的异同之处
主题式:先讲解一个事物的各个方面,再讲解另一个事物
第一段         A1         B1
第二段         A2         B2
第一段          A1         A2
第二段          B1         B2

  如:

  As a creature,I eat; as a man,I read. Although one action is to meet the primary need of my body and the other is to satisfy the intellectual need of my mind,they are in a way quite similar.

  To keep ourselves alive,we need all kinds of nutrition. 1) Eating is the most important way by which we can get starch,protein,vitamin,sugar,fat,and some trace elements. 2) On the other hand,we eat not only because we have to do so,but also because we enjoy doing so. Having satisfied our hunger,eating can then be a kind of enjoyment. The color,the smell,and the taste of the food are considered as important as its nutritive value. Very often we eat some food not because it is nourishing but simply because welike it.

  Similarly,to enrich our minds,we need information and knowledge,which can be obtained through reading.1) Reading is one of the most important ways of learning. Without reading our minds will become empty like that of an animal. 2) Sometimes,we take reading as a pastime,and we relax and learn at the same time. Since recreation is involved,we will naturally have a partiality for some particular kinds of books,just as we do for certain kind of food.

  Besides,there are other similarities between eating and reading. 1)We should not eat too much without digesting and assimilating,nor should we read too much without understanding and remembering. 2) While we are eating, we should leave out the rotten part of the food which will do harm to our health; and while we are reading,we should be able to reject the poisonous content in a book,for it will poison our minds.

  So,eat sensibly and read sensibly to give yourself a strong body and a healthy mind.

  本文比较了吃饭与读书的异同。第二、三段采用的是主题法比较它们的相同之处,第四段是通过要点式来进行比较的。

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2010-08-23 15:54 编辑:eileen9
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