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考研英语阅读理解解题技巧——事实细节题

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事实细节题

  在阅读理解测试中,很大比例的题目是考细节的。事实上在对历年试题的分析中发现,事实细节题的比例占一半以上。文章中的细节通常指的是作者为论证文章主题特别是论证段落的大意而使用的具体信息。因为就议论文和说明文而言,作者在阐明准备论述的问题或观点后,通常会用大量具体的事实细节去说明或支持它们。这些细节可以是理由、例子、数字,也可以采用下定义、作比较、对比、打比方等方法去组织。根据具体考查的内容或范围,事实细节题可以再细分为因果细节题、态度细节题、观点细节题、类比细节题、综合细节题和具体细节题。

  1?常见的命题模式

  (1)According to the passage/ the author, who (what, where, which, when, why, how, etc.)

  (2)Which of the following is true/correct/ false/not included?

  (3)All of the following are (not) true, are (not) mentioned except .

  (4)The author mentions all of the items listed below/all of the following except .

  (5)We learn from the last paragraph(the first three paragraphs, the text) that .

  事实细节的考查内容和形式可以说是五花八门,但是大致可以归纳为以下三种类型:

  (1)According 型

  题干中多用who,what, where, which, when, why, how等疑问词引导,利用词性、同义词、近义词或一些意思相似的语句去考查考生对原文表达细节信息的词汇、惯用法的正确理解,要求考生在文中寻找重要事实与细节。考生可以利用题目的关键词去寻找文中对应词,在对应词周围找答案。注意:此类题中,考what 和why 的最多。

  (2)隐含的事实和细节型

  测试考生对文章展示的细节的综合概括能力;需要在读懂全文的基础上,综合概括作者展示的各种细节。

  Hunting for a job late last year, lawyer Gant Redmon stumbled across CareerBuilder, a job database on the Internet. He searched it with no success but was attracted by the site’s “personal search agent”. It’s an interactive feature that lets visitors key in job criteria such as location, title, and salary, then E-mails them when a matching position is posted in the database. Redmon chose the keywords legal, intellectual property and Washington, D.C. Three weeks later, he got his first notification of an opening. “I struck gold,” says Redmon, who E-mailed his resume to the employer and won a position as in-house counsel for a company.(2004年Passage 1)

  How did Redmon find his job?

  [A] By searching openings in a job database.

  [B] By posting a matching position in a database.

  [C] By using a special service of a database.

  [D] By E-mailing his resume to a database.

  整个全文的主题是介绍“搜索代理”这种网上谋职工具。而第一段围绕雷德曼通过“个人搜索代理”求职的个人经历展开论述。根据整个段落的细节内容和全文的主题可以判断出[C]选项正确,该选项中的“特殊服务”指的就是“个人搜索代理”这种服务,其他干扰项都不符合文意。

  (3)正误判断题

  此类试题多根据文章的一段或数段提问,考查考生在现实生活中的阅读技能,即快速、准确寻找所需信息的能力。这种题目因为覆盖面较广,搜索定位时间较长,因而难度较大,容易给考生带来心理压力。因此考生遇到此类题型时,首先要调整心理状态,冷静地返回到文章中去寻找答案。

  这种题原文往往有罗列,因此其解题三步骤如下:首先,读懂题干和四个选项的内容,提炼和记忆它们的主要意思;其次,带着问题去阅读文章,扫描和搜寻信息点,与题目不相关的句子和语段很快掠过,相关信息语言区域则要放慢速度,细致地对照原文和选项提供的信息;最后,“对号入座”,找到解题范围后,立刻排除明显的干扰项,然后“逐个突破”,对余下的选项进行筛选,使选项的范围越来越小,判断的准确率越来越高。

  正误判断题有两种题型:一正三误和三正一误,即要求考生找出四个选项中惟一正确的一个和要求考生判断哪一个选项与文章不符。

  这中间应该特别提到的是后者,又称except题型。其特点是题干中常常含有否定意义词汇except,not (mentioned /true), least等,要求考生辨认哪些细节文章中未提及。解此类题也遵循上面的三个步骤。在对号入座时,可以将原文中提到的内容划线,表示是排除的内容;无法对号的即是答案。

  Example

  Money spent on advertising is money spent as well as any I know of. It serves directly to assist a rapid distribution of goods at reasonable prices, thereby establishing a firm home market and so making it possible to provide for export at competitive prices. By drawing attention to new ideas it helps enormously to raise standards of living. By helping to increase demand it ensures an increased need for labour, and is therefore an effective way to fight unemployment. It lowers the costs of many services: without advertisements your daily newspaper would cost four times as much, the price of your television licence would need to be doubled and travel by bus or tube would cost 20 per cent more. (1995年Passage 1)

  In the passage, which of the following is NOT included in the advantages of advertising?

  [A] Securing greater fame. [B] Providing more jobs.

  [C] Enhancing living standards. [D] Reducing newspaper cost.

  这是一道典型的except题。先略读题干和选项,得知题目主要问的是广告的益处。定位到文章第一段。这一段列举了广告的四点益处: a?有助于产品以合理价格稳定国内市场,以有竞争力的价格进入国际市场;b?有利于提高人们的生活标准;c?增加了市场需求,扩大了就业;d?使许多公共事业的服务价格低廉。对号入座,发现只有选项[A]文中未提及。

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2010-08-23 15:36 编辑:eileen9
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