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考研英语阅读理解解题技巧——观点态度题

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在一篇文章中,不管作者对某一观点是支持、反对还是中立,是同情、冷漠还是失望,是批评还是赞扬,主观还是客观,都表达了作者一定的观点和态度。只是这些观点态度的提出有的直截了当,有的隐含在字里行间,有的通过所用词语的褒贬来体现,有的则需要通读全文,把握主旨才能领会。一般情况下,所选的文章不带有强烈的感情色彩,因此不会引起太大的争议和分歧。

  此类题型可细分为作者态度题(表明作者的好恶)和作者观点题(表明作者对某事物的观点)。题干中的关键词或词组有attitude,opinion,tone等等。其命题模式如下。

  1?作者态度题

  (1)What is the tone (mood) of the passage?

  (2)The author’s attitude towards...might be summarized as(seems to be) .

  (3)Which of the following can best describe the attitude of the author towards...?

  (4)The author is most critical of .

  2?作者观点题

  (1)According to the author, .

  (2)In the author’s opinion, .

  (3)What is the author’s opinion (idea) about?

  (4)The author thinks (believes, suggests, deems, asserts) that .

  (5) In the author’s eyes...

  态度题的选项一般是形容词,按照作者对所阐述问题的态度进行分类,可以分为:

  积极类:objective(客观的), impartial(公正的),helpful(有帮助的),positive(正确的),supporting(支持的),admiring(羡慕的),interesting(引起兴趣的),unbiased(没有偏见的),concerned(关心的),confident(自信的),impressive(给人印象深刻的),optimistic(乐观的)等;

  中立类:detached(超然的), factual(实际的), indifferent(无关紧要的),impassive(冷漠的),uninterested(不感兴趣的),ambivalent(矛盾的),apathetic(无动于衷的),neutral(中立的,不确定的),impersonal(不带个人色彩的)等;

  消极类:disgusting(令人厌恶的),critical(批评的),negative(否定的),intolerable(不能忍受的),disappointed(失望的),subjective(主观的),biased(有偏见的),doubtful(怀疑的),compromising(折中的),worried(担心的),pessimistic(悲观的),hostile(敌对的)等。

  历年作者态度题:

年份
正确选项
干扰项
2007 Text 2
[B] skeptical(消极类)
[A] Supportive(积极类)
[C] Impartial(中立类)
[D] Biased(消极类)
2006 Text 2
[D]is sympathetic to the RSC(积极类)
[A] is supportive of both sides(积极类)
[B] favors the townsfolk’s view(积极类)
[C] takes a detached attitude(中立类)
2004 Text 4
[A] optimistic(积极类)
[B] Confused. (消极类)
[C] Carefree. (积极类)
[D] Panicked. (消极类)
2003 Text 4
[B] reserved consent(积极类)
[A] strong disapproval(消极类)
[C] slight contempt(消极类)
[D] enthusiastic support(积极类)
T2002 Text 3
[A] optimistic(积极类)
[B] sensitive (中立类)
[C] gloomy (消极类)
[D] scared(消极类)
2001 Passage 4
[B] objective (积极类)
[A] optimistic(积极类)
[C] pessimistic(消极类)
[D] biased(消极类)

  3?作者态度题的解题技巧

  第一,某一事物是好是坏。作者对它是支持还是反对,态度都非常明确,而带中立色彩的词最不可能是正确答案。问作者对某事物的态度时,表示“客观”的词多为正确选项,如:objective, impartial, unbiased等;问作者对其提到的人们的观点的态度时,答案只能是肯定或否定,支持或反对。如:critical, approval, opposition, supporting等。

  第二,既然写了文章,那么作者的态度就不可能漠不关心,因此见到indifferent,uninterested这类词可以首先排除。

  第三,注意不要把考生自己的好恶态度糅进其中,要注意区分作者本人的态度和作者引用的观点的态度。

  第四,当作者的态度没有明确提出时,考生要学会根据作者使用的词语的褒贬性去判断作者态度,如:wonderful(y),successful(y),positive(ly),active(ly),negative(ly), unfortunate(ly), doubtful(ly)等。

  Example

  Under the new Northern Territory law, an adult patient can request death probably by a deadly injection or pill—to put an end to suffering. The patient must be diagnosed as terminally ill by two doctors. After a “cooling off” period of seven days, the patient can sign a certificate of request. After 48 hours the wish for death can be met. For Lloyd Nickson, a 54-year-old Darwin resident suffering from lung cancer, the NT Rights of Terminally Ill law means he can get on with living without the haunting fear of his suffering: a terrifying death from his breathing condition. “I’m not afraid of dying from a spiritual point of view, but what I was afraid of was how I’d go, because I’ve watched people die in the hospital fighting for oxygen and clawing at their masks, ” he says.(1997年 Passage 1)

  The author’s attitude towards euthanasia seems to be that of .

  [A] opposition [B] suspicion [C] approval [D] indifference

  作者通过living without the haunting fear of his suffering这一肯定性词语表达出自己的态度是[C] approval。

  解答态度观点题应注意两点:

  第一,区别作者的态度与其他人的态度。问文中某人对某事物的态度一般归入事实细节题。

  第二,选项可能不再是态度明确的肯定或否定的形容词,而改为带有程度限制的形容词。一般带有绝对化或过于强烈的表示态度的词必错,如strong/complete/entire/enthusiastic等。而有保留的态度比较客观,因此常常是正确选项,如reserved(保留的)/qualified (有限制的,有条件的)/tempered (有所控制的)/guarded(慎重的)/consent (赞同)等。

  4?作者观点题的解题技巧

  第一,文章陈述的内容并非都是作者的观点。作者引用别人的观点时,是作为支持或抨击的对象,因此别人的观点是为了证明作者观点的论据。

  第二,作者观点一般与文章主旨相关联。

 

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2010-08-23 15:28 编辑:eileen9
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