Section Ⅰ Use of English
Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A,B,C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1(10 points)
The human nose is an underrated tool. Humans are often thought to be insensitive smellers compared with animals, 1 this is largely because, 2 animals ,we stand upright. This means that our noses are 3 to perceiving those smells which float through the air, 4 the majority of smells which stick to surfaces. In fact
5 , we are extremely sensitive to smells, 6 we do not generally realize it. Our noses are capable of 7 human smells even when these are 8 to far below one part in one million.
Strangely, some people find that they can smell one type of flower but not another, 9 others are sensitive to the smells of both flowers. This may be because some people do not have the genes necessary to generate 10 smell receptors in the nose. These receptors are the cells which sense smells and send 11 to the brain. However, it has been found that even people insensitive to a certain smell 12 can suddenly become sensitive to it when 13 to it often enough.
The explanation for insensitivity to smell seems to be that brain finds it
14 to keep all smell receptors working all the time but can 15 new receptors if necessary. This may 16 explain why we are not usually sensitive to our own smells we simply do not need to be. We are not 17 of the usual smell of our own house but we 18 new smells when we visit someone else's. The brain finds it best to keep smell receptors 19 for unfamiliar and emergency signals 20 the smell of smoke, which might indicate the danger of fire.
1. ［A］although ［B］as ［C］but ［D］while
2. ［A］above ［B］unlike ［C］excluding ［D］besides
3. ［A］limited ［B］committed ［C］dedicated ［D］confined
4. ［A］catching ［B］ignoring ［C］missing ［D］tracking
5. ［A］anyway ［B］though ［C］instead ［D］therefore
6. ［A］even if ［B］if only ［C］only if ［D］as if
7. ［A］distinguishing［B］discovering ［C］determining［D］detecting
8. ［A］diluted ［B］dissolved ［C］determining［D］diffused
9. ［A］when ［B］since ［C］for ［D］whereas
10. ［A］unusual ［B］particular ［C］unique ［D］typical
11. ［A］signs ［B］stimuli ［C］messages ［D］impulses
12. ［A］at first ［B］at all ［C］at large ［D］at times
13. ［A］subjected ［B］left ［C］drawn ［D］exposed
14. ［A］ineffective ［B］incompetent ［C］inefficient［D］insufficient
15. ［A］introduce ［B］summon ［C］trigger ［D］create
16. ［A］still ［B］also ［C］otherwise ［D］nevertheless
17. ［A］sure ［B］sick ［C］aware ［D］tired
18. ［A］tolerate ［B］repel ［C］neglect ［D］notice
19. ［A］availabe ［B］reliable［C］identifiable［D］suitable
20. ［A］similar to［B］such as ［C］along with ［D］aside from
Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension
Directions:Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A,B,C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1(40 points)
Everybody loves a fat pay rise. Yet pleasure at your own can vanish if you learn that a colleague has been given a bigger one. Indeed, if he has a reputation for slacking, you might even be outraged. Such behaviour is regarded as “all too human”, with the underlying assumption that other animals would not be capable of this finely developed sense of grievance. But a study by Sarah Brosnan and Frans de Waal of Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia, which has just been published in Nature, suggests that it all too monkey, as well.
The researchers studied the behaviour of female brown capuchin monkeys. They look cute. They are good-natured, co-operative creatures, and they share their food tardily. Above all, like their female human counterparts, they tend to pay much closer attention to the value of “goods and services” than males.
Such characteristics make them perfect candidates for Dr. Brosnan's and Dr. de waal's; study. The researchers spent two years teaching their monkeys to exchange tokens for food. Normally, the monkeys were happy enough to exchange pieces of rock for slices of cucumber. However, when two monkeys were placed in separate but adjoining chambers, so that each could observe what the other was getting in return for its rock, their behaviour became markedly different.
In the world of capuchins grapes are luxury goods (and much preferable to cucumbers) So when one monkey was handed a grape in exchange for her token, the second was reluctant to hand hers over for a mere piece of cucumber. And if one received a grape without having to provide her token in exchange at all, the other either tossed her own token at the researcher or out of the chamber, or refused to ;accept the slice of cucumber Indeed, the mere presence of a grape in the other chamber (without an actual monkey to eat it) was enough to reduce resentment in a female capuchin.
The researches suggest that capuchin monkeys, like humans, are guided by social emotions, in the wild, they are a co-operative, groupliving species, Such co-operation is likely to be stable only when each animal feels it is not being cheated. Feelings of righteous indignation, it seems, are not the preserve of people alone, Refusing a lesser reward completely makes these feelings abundantly clear to other members of the group. However, whether such a sense of fairness evolved independently in capuchins and humans, or whether it stems form the common ancestor that the species had 35 million years ago, is, as yet, an unanswered question.
21. In the opening paragraph, the author introduces his topic by
[A]. posing a contrast.
[B]. justifying an assumption.
[C]. making a comparison.
[D]. explaining a phenomenon.
22. The statement “it is all too monkey” (Last line, paragraph l) implies that
[A]. monkeys are also outraged by slack rivals.
[B]. resenting unfairness is also monkeys' nature.
[C]. monkeys, like humans, tend to be jealous of each other.
[D]. no animals other than monkeys can develop such emotions.
23. Female capuchin monkeys were chosen for the research most probably because they are
[A]. more inclined to weigh what they get.
[B]. attentive to researchers' instructions.
[C]. nice in both appearance and temperament.
[D]. more generous than their male companions
24. Dr. Brosnan and Dr. de Waal have eventually found in their study that the monkeys
[A]. prefer grapes to cucumbers.
[B]. can be taught to exchange things.
[C]. will not be co-operative if feeling cheated.
[D]. are unhappy when separated from others.
25. What can we infer from the last paragraph?
[A]. Monkeys can be trained to develop social emotions.
[B]. Human indignation evolved from an uncertain source.
[C]. Animals usually show their feelings openly as humans do.
[D]. Cooperation among monkeys remains stable only in the wild.
The important role of a city’s local conditions in the urban design Recently there is a hot debate on a report that a foreign design company invited by a little-known mountaino