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【阅读辅导】大学英语六级阅读题的段落结构

所属:四六级英语 作者:webmaster 阅读:1876 次 评论:0 条 [我要评论]  [+我要收藏]
阅读文章的段落结构

  一般来说,每一类文体或每一位作者都遵循着大体一致的组织原则。了解这些原则就可以加深对文章的理解和加快阅读速度。而文章是由段落组成的,因此,理解文章应从理解每一段的段落结构开始。因为六级阅读的篇章不长,因此理解段落的结构对做六级阅读有很大的作用,可以快速地找到中心思想和具体的事实与细节。一般有以下几种结构:

  一、时间顺序

  事件的发生、发展过程都是有时间的。在头脑中有了一个明确的时间顺序,也就是事件的连续性,有助于快速地理解和抓住中心思想。例如:

  A small, hand - propelled German submarine , the Brand-taucher, sank in 1851 in sixty feet of water , with her captain ,Wilhelm Bauer, and two crew members aboard. Her hull immediately began to collapse under the pressure of the sea. CaptainBauer , who had built the tiny craft, knew that if he could keep his two companions from panicking while allowing the water to rise steadily inside her , the interior and exterior pressure would equalize and they would be able to open the hatch and got out. They did.

  二、地点顺序

  一切事件的发生、发展过程都有不同的地点,把这些地点联系起来,同样有助于快速地抓住中心思想,找到具体的事实与细节。

  三、事件的重要性的顺序

  有些段落的细节构成常常是次要的放在前面,重要的放在最后。了解重要性的先后次序同样有助于我们快速地找到并抓住中心思想。

  四、对比法

  文章中为了描述一种不熟悉的事物或观念,常常把它们与我们所熟悉的事物或观念想对比,或者把过去的事物与现在的事物相对比。如果熟悉作者的这种笔法,有助于使我们快速地捕捉到中心意思和具体细节。下面的例子中,有三个方面进行了比较:

  While there are many differences between high school and college , I'd have to say that the most important ones all involve freedom. Everyone has to attend high school , at least until tenth grade , so very often you find classes where the students aren't serious about learning. College is exactly the opposite. People are there voluntarily because they want to learn and improve themselves. As a result college students are much more serious and interested. Another major difference is that colleges don' t enforce arbitrary rules. In high school you need a pass to be in the hallway during class, and you can' t leave a classroom without permission. On the other hand , college students can go where they please.

五、因果关系

  在说明文或议论文中,事物的因果关系常被用来作为展开段落的方法。先讲原因,后给结果或者是先给结果,后讲原因。还有一些段落在原因显而易见的情况下可以只集中说明结果;相反,还有一些段落则只涉及原因,例如:

  My grandfather's farm has become much easier to manage in recent years. His prize Holstein cows , for example , are now milked by automatic pumps rather than by hand. Also , the eggs his hens lay are hatched in incubators instead of by the hens themselves. The temperature and humidity in the hen houses are controlled by thermostats, not by Nature' s whim; and the amount of food his chickens get each day is determined by a computer rather than by a farmhand's estimates. All that is left for grandfather to go , he jokes, is to sit back and pay the huge electric bills.

  六、分类

  分类是根据事物的特点分别归类。这样组合段落的目的是为了分清每一种类的性质。例如:

  In ferreting the interests of people in space, we are aware that there are probably three reasons. Firstly , it is a plan of looking for other places to hold the overcrowded population on this

  earth. Secondly , it is the curiosity of mankind to urge the scientists for the research work, because they desire too eagerly the coming of the day when they can travel freely in space. Thirdly, we are reminded of the mineral sources which are not sufficient to provide for the needs on the earth, so we try every effort to go to other planets in the hope for searching for new resources.

  七、一般到个别

  大多数的段落以主题句开头,开门见山,点明主题,然后给出具体细节,或是用理由和实例来论证主题。例如:

  My ambition is to go to college, but my environment does not allow me to do so. My father has been in some difficulty in supporting me even in the middle school, so it is certainly a greater difficulty for him to pay my expenses in college. And I have five brothers in schools. If I go to college, the burden will be too heavy for my father. Moreover, I am poor in science, and perhaps this will prevent me from being successfully assigned the entrance of a college.

  八、个别到一般

  这种段落是先给出具体细节,或是以理由和实例开头,而后用概述全段意思的一般性评论作为段落结尾。

  此外,还有定义法,这种方式是对某些词、术语或抽象概念下定义。使用段落下定义往往先把一个词限定为总属词类的一项,再把这个词项和同类中的其他项目相区别。 

 

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2010-08-19 16:45 编辑:eileen9
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