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【语法及词汇辅导】英语六级考试:有关一些高分语法

所属:四六级英语 作者:webmaster 阅读:3205 次 评论:0 条 [我要评论]  [+我要收藏]
定冠词限定名词时主要表示特指,针对TOEFL应注意以下几点:
(1) the和可数名词单数连用,表示一类人或物,如:
the fern(蕨类), the wallflower
(2) 序数词之前必须用the,如:
the first woman, the nineteenth century
但前面有物主代词时除外,如 my first baby
(3) 形容词最高级之前必须用the(有物主代词时除外),如:
the largest city, the most advanced technology
(4) of连接的名词前多用the, 如:
the development of the watch,
(5) 世界上独一无二的东西前应加the, 如:
the globe(地球),the equator(赤道), the moon, the sun
在下列情况下,一般不用the:
(1) 表示人名、地名、国家名等专有名词前, 一般不加,如:
Dennis Chavez(人名),Alaska(地名),English(英语), February(二月),
America(美国)
但是在表示海洋、海峡、江、河、山脉、群岛等专有名词时要加上the
the Great Lakes(美国五大湖), the Changjiang River(长江)
(2) 无特指的不可数名词前,如:
algebra(代数学), advertising, accounting(会计学)
(3) 表示类别的复数名词前,如:
Historians believe that…, Amphibians(两栖动物) hatch from…
(4) 一些固定词组中,如:
in history, in nature, at work, at home , go to school, go to bed, in
bed
乘车的词组:
by train(乘火车), by car (乘汽车), by bicycle(骑脚踏车),
by bus (乘公共汽车),
by land(由陆路), by sea (由海路), by water (由水路) , by air
(通过航空)
on foot (步行), by plane(乘飞机), by ship (乘船),
打球的词组:
play tennis, play baseball, play basketball
注意:表示职位的词之前的冠词有无均可, 如:He was elected (the)
chairman of t
he committee.
不可数名词的限定词和不可数名词原形连用, 下面这些限定词后面一定跟不可数名
词:
 
much, a large amount of, a great deal of, a wealth of(大量的、丰富的)
little /a little /less /least, a piece /sheet /slice /bar of, 属不可数名
词专用另外一些词(词组)如such, some /any (of), most (of), a lot of, lots of,
the re
st of, plenty of等既可接可数名词又可接不可数名词。
有些形容词本身就具有“比….年长”、“ 比…..优越”等含义,因此也就没有比
较级
和最高级。比如: inferior, superior, senior, anterior。这些形容词往往和
to连用,而不和than连用。
 
有些形容词本身就具备“最、极”的含义,所以就没有最高级和比较级。如:
absolute(绝对的), unique(独一无二的), infinite(无限的), round(圆的),
right(对
的), correct(正确的), wrong(错误的), perfect(完美的),这类形容词往往被称
为绝
对形容词
对于most来讲,除了构成某些词最高级外,most的用法有几点需要注意,经常成为
改错
题的考点:
1. 当most表示大多数时,之前不加the, 并且有两种形式来表示大多数,分别
为:
most + 名词,如:most people, most Indian tribes;
most + of + 限定词 + 名词或代词,如:most of his paintings,most of us,
 m
ost of the modern artists
2. most有时意思等同于very, 此时most之前用不定冠词,如:
a most lovely girl, a most impressive proposal
例题:
(1)
  The most substances expand in volume when they are heated.
   A        B   C     D
答案:A
应改为:Most
解释:most只有在表示形容词最高级作定语时需加定冠词,此句表示“大多数”,
没必
要加the.
Aluminum is the most abundant metal in the crust of the Earth, but the
nonme
tals
         A          B      C
oxygen and silicon are more still abundant.
            D
考点:程度副词
答案:D
应改为:still more
解释:程度副词still修饰比较级more时,应置于其前
几点参考规则:
1. 多数副词放在修饰的动词之后,若动词有宾语则放在宾语之后,如:
She sings very well.
I met your uncle(动词的宾语) just now.
I met just now your uncle (错)
2. 副词修饰形容词、介词短语、副词时常放在被修饰成分之前,如:
These two are only slightly different.
right after this, very smoothly
当然,副词enough是一个例外,要放在修饰成分的后面,如:
I am not good enough to do this job. (对)
I am not enough good to do this job. (错)
3. 表示频率的副词常放在实意动词之前,be动词之后,如:
He often/ always/ rarely/seldom/never play(实意动词) tennis.
He is always here at 8’clock. (be动词之后)
4. 部分副词的位置没有一定的规定,原则上接近被修饰词即可,如:
only, even, still, perhaps, etc.
第四节 容易混淆的词
            D
考点:程度副词
答案:D
应改为:still more
解释:程度副词still修饰比较级more时,应置于其前
几点参考规则:
1. 多数副词放在修饰的动词之后,若动词有宾语则放在宾语之后,如:
She sings very well.
I met your uncle(动词的宾语) just now.
I met just now your uncle (错)
2. 副词修饰形容词、介词短语、副词时常放在被修饰成分之前,如:
These two are only slightly different.
right after this, very smoothly
当然,副词enough是一个例外,要放在修饰成分的后面,如:
I am not good enough to do this job. (对)
I am not enough good to do this job. (错)
3. 表示频率的副词常放在实意动词之前,be动词之后,如:
He often/ always/ rarely/seldom/never play(实意动词) tennis.
He is always here at 8’clock. (be动词之后)
4. 部分副词的位置没有一定的规定,原则上接近被修饰词即可,如:
only, even, still, perhaps, etc.
第四节 容易混淆的词
hard (努力,副词) -hardly (几乎不,副词)
close (接近,形容词) -closely(接近,副词)
near (接近,形容词) -nearly (几乎,副词), nearby (ad
j.邻近的)
most (大多数的,形容词) -mostly(主要地,大部分 副词)
late (迟、晚,形容词) -lately (最近,副词),later(adv
.稍后的)
high (高的,形容词) -highly (adv. 非常,大大的)
另外: friendly(友好的), lovely(可爱的、有趣的),尽管词尾有ly, 但是都
是形
容词
作主语:不定式短语可作主语
如:To see is to believe (百闻不如一见)
    To work hard should be your major concern.
注意:由于英文不习惯句子主语过长,不定式主语常被形式主语it所代替(详见第
十七章)
例如上面第二句可以变为: It should be your major concern to work hard.
 
又如: It is very nice of you to help me
不定式常接在名词之后作定语,如:
something to read, nothing to do, anything to decla
re,
a lot to complain of, the right person to talk to, etc.
由上述例子不难看出不定式和被修饰词间有动宾关系,因此不及物动词之后必须加
上相
搭配的介词(例如上面的complain + of, talk +to)
不定式定语还可表示将来的含义,如:in the years to follow, the meeting to
 be
held in June
独立主格的主语和句子主语不一致
如:(With) His mouth filled with water, he couldn’t utter a word. (独立
主格) 
对于分词来讲其逻辑主语必须和句子的主语保持一致:
Filling his mouth with water, he couldn’t utter a word.
在TOEFL考试中,经常混淆反身代词的写法,结尾的-self和-selves经常故意写错
 
反身代词的用法
可以用来做宾语: He hurt himself when he fell.
可以用来做表语: He is not quite himself today. (他今天有些不舒服)
反身代词经常放在名词或者代名词的后面来进行强调, 表示“亲自”的意思
I myself do it.
I do it myself.
They made the research themselves.
但是不能够说:Himself does it. 应改为: He does it.
       This is himself’s book.. 应改为:This is his own book..
牢记make possible的三种形式:
1. make+名词+possible;
His financial aid makes this trip possible.
2. make+possible+名词(名词短语较长时)
His financial aid makes possible the poor Chinese student’s entering of
 th
e world famous
university.
3. make it possible (for sb.)to do (见形式宾语部分)
The father’s hard labor makes it possible for the son to receive better
 ed
ucation.
定语从句可分为限定性和非限定性两种,其主要区别为:
1. 非限定性定语从句中,引导词和先行词之间需用逗号隔开。
2. 非限定性定语从句中,引导词一般不用that,
在修饰人时用who, whom, whose
He had three children, all of whom had graduated from college.
在修饰物时用 which
部分状语从句可以省略,在填空题中时有出现
如:Although defeated, he did not lose heart. (从句中省略了he was)
If inFORMed timely, I wouldn’t have missed the meeting. (从句中省略了
I were)
 
注意: 当现在完成时的时间状语是for + 一段时间(已经有…时间了), 和since
+ 一个
时间点(自从…以来)的时候, 句中的谓语不能是非延续性动词(暂短性动词), 如不
能说:
I have borrowed the book for ten days. (错误: borrow这个动作是发生在图书
出纳
台上的一次性动作, 不能延续, 因此不能和for引导的时间状语连用)
应改为: I have kept the book for ten days.
这样的暂短性动词还有: buy/sell, break, die, graduate, drop等

18
2010-08-19 13:21 编辑:homersimpson
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