所属:四六级英语 作者:webmaster 阅读:1968 次 评论:0 条 [我要评论]  [+我要收藏]

Passage 4
  Companionship of Books
  A man may usually be known by the books he reads as well as by the company he keeps: for there is a companionship of books as well as of men①; and one should always live in the best company, whether it be of books or of men.
A good book may be among the best of friends. It is the same today that it always was, and it will never change. It is the most patient and cheerful of companions. It does not turn its back upon us in times of trouble or distress.It always receives us with the same kindness, amusing and instructing us in youth, and comforting us in age.
Books possess an extract having the fundamental properties of immortality. They are by far the most lasting products of human effort. Temples and statues decay, but books survive. Time is of no account with great thoughts, which are as fresh today as when they first passed through their author?s minds ages ago. The only effect of time has been to sift out the bad products: for nothing in literature can long survive but what is really good.
  Books introduce us into the best society: they bring us into the presence of the greatest minds that have ever lived. We hear what they said and did: we see them as if they were really alive; we sympathize with them, enjoy with them, hurt with them; their experience becomes ours, and we feel as if we were, in a measure, actors with them in the scenes which they describe.
  The great and good do not die even in this world. Embalmed in books, their spirits walk abroad. The book is a living voice. It is an intellect to which one still listens. Hence we ever remain under the influence of the great men of old. The great intellects of the world are as much alive now as they were ages ago.
[334 words]

  本文是苏格兰作家塞谬尔·斯迈尔斯(Samuel Smiles)的作品。短文以小品文(essay)的形式写成。小品文形式是法国作家蒙田(Montaigne)创立的,注重抒发作者的思想感受。文章语言凝练,其中不乏经典名句,各段首句均为每段的主题句,简短精悍,易于背诵。
  文章层层深入,结构清晰。文中首段首句直接点题。从第二段起直至文章的结尾紧扣主题逐步论述。第二段把一本好书比作the best of friends,紧接着在第三段指出记录伟人思想的书籍能流芳百世。第四段又把书籍喻为引导者,它将我们与伟人联系在一起。接着这个话题,最后一段进一步解释:书是一种充满生气的声音,能将伟人的精神传播四方。
阅读时还须体会作者用多变的句式和长短句交替 (alternation of long sentences and short sentences)的方式表达思想的手法。


?distress      n.苦痛
?fundamental  a.基本的,根本的,基础的
?immortality   n.不朽
?decay    v.腐朽
?sift sth out  筛分(某物)
?sympathize  vi.①同情,怜悯②体谅,赞同
?embalm v.使不朽
?intellect   n.①智力,理解力②才智非凡的人
①【注释】as well as 也,还,而且
【临摹】She is a talented musician as well as being a photographer.她不但是摄影家还是个天才的音乐家。佳句临摹

Books and friends should be few but good. 书籍和朋友都要少而精。
Books are like little boats, by them we can swim in the wide ocean of knowledge. 书籍就像一艘艘小船,载着我们畅游于广阔的知识海洋当中。

Passage 5
  Participation in the Classroom
  Taking part in the classroom is not only accepted but also expected of students in many courses. Some professors base part of the final grade on the student? s taking part in orally①.  Although there are formal lectures during which the student has a passive role (i.e. listening and taking notes), many courses are organized around classroom discussions, student questions, and informal lectures. In graduate seminars the professor has a “managing”role and the students make presentations and lead discussions. The students do the actual teaching in these seminars.
  A professor?s teaching style is another factor that determines the degree and type of student participation. Some professors prefer to control discussion, while others prefer to guide the class without dominating it. Many professors encourage students to question and challenge their ideas. Students who make opinions that are different from the professor?s point of view should be prepared to support their positions②.
In the teaching of science and mathematics, the dominant mode of instruction is generally traditional, with teachers presenting formal lectures and students taking notes. However, new educational trends have emerged in the humanities and social sciences in the past two decades. Students in education, sociology, and psychology classes, for example, are often required to solve problems in groups, design projects, make       presentations, and examine case studies. Since some college or university courses are “practical”rather than theoretical, they stress “doing” and participation.
 [253 words]

  文章第一段首先用not only...but also...句型点明作者的观点:课堂参与对学生来说不仅是可以接受的,而且是他们所期望的。第二段介绍学生参与形式和程度的其他影响因素——教授的教学风格,接着作者用Some professors prefer to...while others prefer to...举例说明了两种不同的教学风格。最后一段介绍课堂参与在不同学科中的实施情况。


?seminar   n.(大学的)研究班,研讨会
?dominate   vt.支配,统治,控制
?sociology     n.社会学
?participation   n.参加
①【注释】take part (in sth.)参与,参加(某事物)
【临摹】How many countries will be taking part in the World Cup?有多少国家要参加世界杯比赛?
②【注释】make opinions 提出观点
【临摹】Most Americans think polls make their opinion worth something. 大多数美国人认为民意测验使得他们的意见显得有价值了。佳句临摹
Knowledge is a treasure, but practice is the key to it. 知识是一座宝库,而实践是开启这座宝库的钥匙。
Teach others by your example. 躬亲示范。
A good example is the best sermon. 身教胜似言教。

2010-08-18 15:21 编辑:mavis1114