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【阅读训练】英语四级篇章词汇阅读训练附答案解析(四)

所属:四六级英语 作者:webmaster 阅读:7315 次 评论:0 条 [我要评论]  [+我要收藏]

Sport is not only physically challenging, but it can also be mentally challenging. Criticism from coaches, parents, and other teammates, as well as pressure to win can create an excessive amount of __1__ or stress for young athletes. Stress can be physical, emotional, or psychological and research has indicated that it can lead to burnout. Burnout has been described as __2__ or  quitting of an activity that was at one time enjoyable.

The early years of development are __3__ years for learning about oneself. The sport setting is one where valuable experiences can take place. Young athletes can, for example, learn how to  __4__ with others, make friends, and gain other social skills that will be used throughout their lives.  Coaches and parents should be aware, at all times, that their feedback to youngsters can __5__  affect their children. Youngsters may take their parents’ and coaches’ criticisms to heart and find a  flaw(缺陷)in themselves.

Coaches and parents should also be __6__ that youth sport participation does not become work for children. That outcome of the game should not be more important than the __7__ of learning the sport and other life lessons. In today’s youth sport setting, young athletes may be worrying more about who will win instead of __8__ themselves and the sport. Following a game many parents and coaches __9__ on the outcome and find fault with youngsters’ performances. Positive reinforcement should be provided regardless of the outcome. Research indicates that positive reinforcement motivates and has a greater effect on learning that criticism. Again, criticism can create __10__ levels of stress, which can lead to burnout.

A)process  B)high  C)enjoying  D)anxiety
E)settle  F)cautious G)cooperateH)greatly
I)dropping J)hardly K)intenseL)focus
M)aspiration  N)critical   O)procedure

参考答案及解析:

1. 选D)。 由or可知,此处应填名词,并且所填名词和stress词语词性相同,选项中有anxiety和aspiration,但由最后一段中worrying more可推出,压力会给运动员造成过多的焦虑,而不是渴望,故排除aspiration而选anxiety。
2.选I)。由or可知, 此处应填动词的现在分词形式,且表达的意思应与quitting相近,故排除选项中的enjoying而选dropping“不再做(某事)”。
3. 选N)。此处应填形容词。从原文“成长过程的最初几年是了解自己的......时期。”可选项有cautious和critical,由后文中的 valuable experiences和be used throughout their lives可推出,成长的最初几年是了解自己的关键时期,而不是谨慎时期。故排除cautious而选critical。
4.选G)。此处应填动词, 且能与with构成搭配。可选项有settle和cooperate,而settle with sb. 意为“同某人解决(法律上的争端)",显然不符合题意,因此选cooperate“合作”。
5.选H)。此处应填副词。可选项有greatly和hardly,由take......to heart可推出,教练和父母的反馈信息会极大地影响年轻运动员,故排除hardly而选greatly。
6.选F)。由also可知, 此处应填与aware对应的形容词。因此,可选项有cautious和critical,但that从句解释的是参与体育运动不能成为孩子们的工作,故只有cautious符合题意。
7.选A)。此处应填名词。由that可知,此处应填与outcome意思相反的词,故只有process“过程”符合题意,选项中procedure强调的是“程序”,故排除。
8.选C)。由句中的instead of可知,此处应填动词的现在分词形式。根据worrying和instead of可推出,此处应填与worrying意思相反的词,因此,选项中只有enjoying符合题意。
9. 选L)。此处应填动词,且能与on构成搭配。可选项有settle和focus,但从句意来理解,比赛后,许多父母和教练......比赛结果,而且总是在挑剔年轻人在比赛中的表现。settle on“决定,同意:,显然与句意不符,故排除settle而选focus,focus on在此意为“看重".
10.选B)。此处应填形容词。但选项中的形容词有high和intense,应为这个形容词由来修饰名词level,而intense表示“紧张的,强烈的”不能用来修饰level,故选择high。

 

导读:

Sport is not only physically challenging, but it can also be mentally challenging. Criticism from coaches, parents, and other teammates, as well as pressure to win can create an excessive amount of D)anxiety or stress for young athletes.(其中as well as表示“也,又”,它连接的是句子的主语,此句是一个复杂的简单句,句子的主干为Criticism...as well as pressure...。from coaches, parents, and other teammates修饰Criticism。)Stress can be physical,emotional, or psychological and research has indicated that it can lead to burnout.(Stress can be physical... and research...。其中it指代的是Stress,因此可推出文章的最后一句与此句的照应。) Burnout has been described as I)dropping or quitting of an activity that was at one time enjoyable.(Burnout has been... quitting of an activity...。其中that引导的定语从句修饰activity。at one time意为“一度,以前“,enjoyable意为“令人愉快的”。)

The early years of development are N)critical years for learning about oneself. The sport setting is one where valuable experiences can take place. Young athletes can, for example, learn how to G)cooperate with others, make friends, and gain other social skills that will be used throughout their lives. Coaches and parents should be aware, at all times, that their feedbackto youngsters can H)greatly affect their children. Youngsters may take their parents' and coaches' criticisms to heart and find a flaw(缺陷) in themselves.

Coaches and parents should also be F)cautious that youth sport participation does not become work for children. That outcome of the game should not be more important than the A)process of learning the sport and other life lessons. In today's youth sport setting, young athletes may be worrying more about who will win instead of C)enjoying themselves and the sport. (In today's...young athletes...。这是一个双重复合句,动词短语worrying more about后接who引导的宾语从句,而instead of 后接的是省去了be的谓语,即”不是...... 而是担心......“。Following a game many parents and coaches L)focus on the outcome and find fault with youngsters' performances. Positive reinforcement should be provided regardless of the outcome. Research indicates that positive reinforcement motivates and has a greater effect on learning that criticism. Again, criticism can create B)high levels of stress, which can lead to burnout.


全文翻译:

体育运动不仅是对体力的挑战,而且是对心理的挑战。来自教练,父母和队友的批评以及想要获胜的压力会给年轻的运动员造成一种过度的焦虑或压力。压力可以是身体上的,情感上的,或者是心理上的。而且研究已表明,它能导致人的精疲力竭。有人把这种状态描述为中断或放弃某种一度曾喜爱的活动。

成长过程中最初的几年是了解自己的最关键时期。运动的环境能使运动员获得宝贵人生经验。例如,年轻运动员能学到怎样和他人合作,交朋友,并获得一些终生受用的其他社会技能。教练和父母始终都应该清楚一点,他们给年轻人的反馈信息会极大地影响他们。年轻人也许会谨记他们父母和教练的批评,并且找到自身的缺陷。

教练和父母还因该谨慎一点,即参与体育运动并不会成为孩子们的工作。比赛结果应该不会比学习体育和其他一些人生经验的过程更为重要。现在在年轻人的体育运动环境中,年轻运动员也许更担心的是谁会赢得比赛,而不是在体育运动中体会乐趣。在一场比赛后,许多父母和教练看中的是比赛结果,总是找出年轻人在比赛表现中的失误。事实上,不论比赛结果如何,都要给他们积极的肯定。研究表明,与批评相比,积极的肯定更能激励人,在帮助学习上具有更大作用。相反,批评只会产生高度压力从而导致人们放弃某种活动。

22
2010-08-16 14:18 编辑:juliatt
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