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【阅读训练】英语四级备战之四级阅读附答案解析(二)

所属:四六级英语 作者:webmaster 阅读:2498 次 评论:0 条 [我要评论]  [+我要收藏]

Another common type of reasoning is the search for causes and results. We want to know whether cigarettes really do cause lung cancer, what causes malnutrition, the decay of teeth. We are equally interested in effects: what is the effect of sulphur or lead in the atmosphere, of staying up late on the night before an examination.

Causal reasoning may go from cause to effect or from effect to cause. Either way, we reason from what we know to what we want to find out. Sometimes we reason from an effect to a cause and then on to another effect. Thus, if we reason that because the lights have gone out, the refrigerator won’t work, we first relate the effect (lights out) to the cause (power off) and then relate that cause to another effect (refrigerator not working). This kind of reasoning is called, in short, effect to effect. It is quite common reasoning through an extensive chain of causal relations. When the lights go out we might reason in the following causal chain: lights out – power off – refrigerator not working – temperature will rise – milk will sour. In other words, we diagnose a succession of effects from the power failure, each becoming the cause of the next.

Causes are classified as necessary, sufficient, or contributory. A necessary cause is one which must be present for the effect to occur, as combustion is necessary to drive a gasoline engine. A sufficient cause is one that can produce an effect unaided (as an empty gas tank is enough to keep a car from starting), though there may be more than one sufficient cause. A contributory cause is one which helps to produce an effect but cannot do so by itself, as running through a red light may help cause an accident, though other factors must also be present.

(306 words)

Multiple Choice Questions:

1. What the author discussed in the previous section is most probably about ________.

A) relationships between causes and results

B) classification of reasoning

C) some other common types of reasoning

D) some special type of reasoning

2. According to the passage, to do the “effect to effect” reasoning is to reason ________.

A) from cause to effect

B) from effect to cause

C) from effect to effect and on to cause

D) from effect to cause and on to another effect.

3. A necessary cause is ________.

A) one without which it is impossible for the effect to occur

B) one of the causes that can produce the effect

C) one that is enough to make the effect occur

D) none of them

4. Your refrigerator is not working and you have found that the electric power has been cut off.

The power failure is a ________.

A) necessary cause

B) sufficient cause

C) contributory cause

D) none of them

5. This passage mainly discusses ________.

A) causal reasoning

B) various types of reasoning

C) classification of causes

D) the causal process

参考答案及解析:

Questions 1 to 5 are based on the following passage.

Another common type of reasoning is the search for causes and results. We want to know whether cigarettes really do cause lung cancer, what cause malnutrition(营养不良), the decay of cities, or the decay of teeth. We are equally interested in effects: what is the effect of sulphur or lead in the atmosphere, of oil spills and raw sewage (污水、污物)in rivers and the sea, of staying up late on the night before an examination?

注:1.reasoning 推理

2.第一句 Another...下结论,是主题句

3.第二、三句 We want to ...an examination?是举例,可以略读      

4.malnutrition 中“mal”是表示“不好”的前缀;overnutrition 营养过剩

 

Causal reasoning may go from cause to effect or from effect to cause. Either way, we reason from what we know to what we want to find out. Sometimes we reason from an effect to a cause and then on to another effect. Thus, if we reason that because the lights have gone out, the refrigerator won't work we first relate the effect (lights out) to the cause (power off) and then relate that cause to another effect. This kind of reasoning is called, for short,    effect to effect. It is quite common to reason through an extensive chain of causal r elations. When the lights go out we might reason in the following causal chain: lights o ut-power off-refrigerator not working -temperature will rise-milk will sour. In other words, we diagnose (判定)a succession of effects from the power failure, each becoming the cause of the next.

注:1.causal 原因的,因果关系的

2.三种推理方式:从原因到结果、从结果到原因、从结果到原因再到另一个结果,第三种更重要

3.extensive 广泛的,来自extend延伸 extensive reading 泛读

4.In other words 换而言之 a succession of 一系列

5.本段讲关系链

                   

Causes are classified as necessary, sufficient, or contributory(起辅助作用的). A necessary cause is one which must be present for the effect to occur, as combustion (燃烧),is necessary to drive a gasoline engine. A sufficient cause is one which can produce an effect unaided (独自的), though there may be more than one sufficient cause: a dead battery is enough to keep a car from starting, but faulty spark plugs(火花塞)or an empty gas tank will have the same effect. A contributory cause is one which helps to produce an effect but cannot do so by itself, as running through a red light may help cause an accident, though other factors --- pedestrians (行人) or other cars in the intersection-must also be present.

注:intersection 交叉路口 inter+section

In establishing or refuting (驳斥,反斥) a causal relation it is usually necessary to show the process by which the alleged (所宣称的,所指称的) cause produces the effect. Such an explanation is called a causal process.

注:在证实或驳斥因果关系需要把推理过程显示出来,如灯灭了,牛奶变酸:灯灭了-停电-冰箱不工作-温度上升-牛奶变酸

1. What the author discussed in the previous section is most probably about ____.

A) relationships between causes and results

B) classification of reasoning

C) some other common types of reasoning

D) some special type of reasoning

注:文章之前的段落内容=首句+结构提示词,one-the other/some-another

Another common type of reasoning is the search for causes and results. We want to know whether cigarettes really do cause lung cancer, what cause malnutrition(营养不良), the decay of cities, or the decay of teeth. We are equally interested in effects: what is the effect of sulphur or lead in the atmosphere, of oil spills and raw sewage (污水、污物)in rivers and the sea, of staying up late on the night before an examination?

2. According to the passage, to do the "effect to effect" reasoning is to reason

A) from cause to effect

B) from effect to cause

C) from effect to effect and on to cause

D) from effect to cause and on to another effect

3. A necessary cause is ____.

A) one without which it is impossible for the effect to occur

B) one of the causes that can produce the effect

C) one that is enough to make the effect occur

D) none of them

注:第三段,A选项是必须在场的相同意思的改写。B选项是原因之一,sufficient cause,C选项没有"必须"含义。

Causes are classified as necessary, sufficient, or contributory(起辅助作用的). A necessary cause is one which must be present for the effect to occur, as combustion (燃烧),is necessary to drive a gasoline engine. A sufficient cause is one which can produce an effect unaided (独自的), though there may be more than one sufficient cause: a dead battery is enough to keep a car from starting, but faulty spark plugs(火花塞)or an empty gas tank will have the same effect. A contributory cause is one which helps to produce an effect but cannot do so by itself, as running through a red light may help cause an accident, though other factors --- pedestrians (行人) or other cars in the intersection-must also be present.

4. Your refrigerator is not working and you have found that the electric power has been cut off.

The power failure is a ____.

A) necessary cause

B) sufficient cause

C) contributory cause

D) none of them

注:断电不是冰箱不工作的必要原因,而是原因之一,冰箱坏了也可以导致冰箱不工作。

Causes are classified as necessary, sufficient, or contributory(起辅助作用的). A necessary cause is one which must be present for the effect to occur, as combustion (燃烧),is necessary to drive a gasoline engine. A sufficient cause is one which can produce an effect unaided (独自的), though there may be more than one sufficient cause: a dead battery is enough to keep a car from starting, but faulty spark plugs(火花塞)or an empty gas tank will have the same effect. A contributory cause is one which helps to produce an effect but cannot do so by itself, as running through a red light may help cause an accident, though other factors --- pedestrians (行人) or other cars in the intersection-must also be present.

5. This passage mainly discusses ____.

A) causal reasoning

B) classification of cause

C) various types of reasoning

D) the causal process

注:主题题。文中只提到因果关系推理的几种操作方法

Another common type of reasoning is the search for causes and results. We want to know whether cigarettes really do cause lung cancer, what cause malnutrition(营养不良), the decay of cities, or the decay of teeth. We are equally interested in effects: what is the effect of sulphur or lead in the atmosphere, of oil spills and raw sewage (污水、污物)in rivers and the sea, of staying up late on the night before an examination?

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2010-08-16 10:13 编辑:juliatt
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