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【阅读辅导】新东方四级学习笔记阅读(二)

所属:四六级英语 作者:webmaster 阅读:4834 次 评论:0 条 [我要评论]  [+我要收藏]
Questions 1 to 5 are based on the following passage.
         Another common type of reasoning is the search for causes and results. We want to know whether cigarettes really do cause lung cancer, what cause malnutrition(营养不良), the decay of cities, or the decay of teeth. We are equally interested in effects: what is the effect of sulphur or lead in the atmosphere, of oil spills and raw sewage (污水、污物)in rivers and the sea, of staying up late on the night before an examination?
注:
1.reasoning 推理
2.第一句 Another...下结论,是主题句
3.第二、三句 We want to ...an examination?是举例,可以略读
4.malnutrition 中“mal”是表示“不好”的前缀;overnutrition 营养过剩

         Causal reasoning may go from cause to effect or from effect to cause. Either way, we reason from what we know to what we want to find out. Sometimes we reason from an effect to a cause and then on to another effect. Thus, if we reason that because the lights have gone out, the refrigerator won't work we first relate the effect (lights out) to the cause (power off) and then relate that cause to another effect. This kind of reasoning is called, for short, effect to effect. It is quite common to reason through an extensive chain of causal relations. When the lights go out we might reason in the following causal chain: lights out-power off-refrigerator not working -temperature will rise-milk will sour. In other words, we diagnose (判定)a succession of effects from the power failure, each becoming the cause of the next.
注:
1.causal 原因的,因果关系的
2.三种推理方式:从原因到结果、从结果到原因、从结果到原因再到另一个结果,第三种更重要
3.extensive 广泛的,来自extend延伸 extensive reading 泛读
4.In other words 换而言之 a succession of 一系列
5.本段讲关系链

         Causes are classified as necessary, sufficient, or contributory(起辅助作用的). A necessary cause is one which must be present for the effect to occur, as combustion (燃烧),is necessary to drive a gasoline engine. A sufficient cause is one which can produce an effect unaided (独自的), though there may be more than one sufficient cause: a dead battery is enough to keep a car from starting, but faulty spark plugs(火花塞)or an empty gas tank will have the same effect. A contributory cause is one which helps to produce an effect but cannot do so by itself, as running through a red light may help cause an accident, though other factors --- pedestrians (行人) or other cars in the intersection-must also be present.
注:intersection 交叉路口 inter+section
         In establishing or refuting (驳斥,反斥) a causal relation it is usually necessary to show the process by which the alleged (所宣称的,所指称的) cause produces the effect. Such an explanation is called a causal process.
注:在证实或驳斥因果关系需要把推理过程显示出来,如灯灭了,牛奶变酸:灯灭了-停电-冰箱不工作-温度上升-牛奶变酸
1. What the author discussed in the previous section is most probably about ____.
A) relationships between causes and results    B) classification of reasoning
C) some other common types of reasoning     D) some special type of reasoning
注:文章之前的段落内容=首句+结构提示词,one-the other/some-another
         Another common type of reasoning is the search for causes and results. We want to know whether cigarettes really do cause lung cancer, what cause malnutrition(营养不良), the decay of cities, or the decay of teeth. We are equally interested in effects: what is the effect of sulphur or lead in the atmosphere, of oil spills and raw sewage (污水、污物)in rivers and the sea, of staying up late on the night before an examination?
2. According to the passage, to do the "effect to effect" reasoning is to reason
A) from cause to effect                   B) from effect to cause
C) from effect to effect and on to cause     D) from effect to cause and on to another effect
3. A necessary cause is ____.
A) one without which it is impossible for the effect to occur
B) one of the causes that can produce the effect
C) one that is enough to make the effect occur
D) none of them
注:第三段,A选项是必须在场的相同意思的改写。B选项是原因之一,sufficient cause,C选项没有"必须"含义。
         Causes are classified as necessary, sufficient, or contributory(起辅助作用的). A necessary cause is one which must be present for the effect to occur, as combustion (燃烧),is necessary to drive a gasoline engine. A sufficient cause is one which can produce an effect unaided (独自的), though there may be more than one sufficient cause: a dead battery is enough to keep a car from starting, but faulty spark plugs(火花塞)or an empty gas tank will have the same effect. A contributory cause is one which helps to produce an effect but cannot do so by itself, as running through a red light may help cause an accident, though other factors --- pedestrians (行人) or other cars in the intersection-must also be present.
4. Your refrigerator is not working and you have found that the electric power has been cut off.
The power failure is a ____.
A) necessary cause  B) sufficient cause  C) contributory cause  D) none of them
注:断电不是冰箱不工作的必要原因,而是原因之一,冰箱坏了也可以导致冰箱不工作。
5. This passage mainly discusses ____.
A) causal reasoning  B) classification of cause  C) various types of reasoning  D) the causal process
注:主题题。文中只提到因果关系推理的几种操作方法
Questions 6 to 10 are based on the following passage:
         I hear many parents complaining that their teen-age children are rebelling, I wish it were so. At your age you ought to be growing away from your parents. You should be learning to stand on your own two feet. But take a good look at the present rebellion. It seems that teenagers are all taking the same way of showing that they disagree with their parents. Instead of striking out boldly on their own, most of them are clutching at(attempting to seize) one another's hands for reassurance.
注:
1.rebel 背叛、反叛
2.从第一句话看出本文是文科文章,所以从态度着手,I wish it were so 说明作者是负态度。
3.should 虚拟语气,表示负态度
4.reassurance=re+assure-ance 使确信;boldly 勇敢的;strike out 开辟

         They claim they want to dress as they please. But they all wear the same clothes. They set off in new directions in music. But somehow they all end up crowded round listening to the same record. Their reason for thinking or acting in thus-and-such a way is that the crowd is doing it. They have come out of their cocoon(蚕茧)--- into a larger cocoon.
注:
1.But 表明作者负态度
2.set off 开始
3.end up 结果
4.reason 用来解释前面的现象
5.把青少年从众心理比喻成蚕茧

         It has become harder and harder for a teen-ager to stand up against the popularity wave and to go his or her own way. Industry firmly carved out a teen-age market. These days every teen-ager can learn from the advertisements what a teen-ager should have and be. And many of today's parents have come to award high marks for the popularity of their children. All this adds up to a great barrier for the teen-ager who wants to find his or her own path.
注:
1.第一句结论句,后面跟着解释
2.第二、三句 Industry... 工业广告对青少年的影响
3.第四句 And many of... 父母亲对青少年的影响
4.have come to 逐渐如何; award 奖励,鼓励; popularity 潮流,名声

         But the barrier is worth climbing over. The path is worth following. You may want to listen to classical music instead of going to a party. You may want to collect rocks when everyone else is collecting records. You may have some thoughts that you don't care to share at once with your classmates. Well, go to it. Find yourself. Be yourself. Popularity will come-with the people who respect you for who you are. That's the only kind of popularity that really counts.
注:
1.path 路径
2.三个 you may 举例来支持前面一句话The path is worth following.
3.Find yourself.Be yourself. 提出建议,后面句子给出原因
4.count vi.重要,vt.数

6. The author's purpose writing this passage is to tell ____.
A) readers how to be popular in with around
B) teen-agers how to learn to decide things for themselves
C) parents how to control and guide their children
D) people how to understand and respect each other
注:
写作目的题型,目标读者:青少年
7. According to the author, many teen-agers think they are brave enough to act on their own, but, in fact, most of them ____.
A) have much difficulty understanding each other   
B) lack confidence
C) dare not cope with problems single-handed     
D) are very much afraid of getting lost
注:
brave定位第一段boldly
8. Which of the following is NOT true according to the passage?
A) There is no popularity that really counts.
B) What many parents are doing is in fact hindering their children from finding their own paths.
C) It is not necessarily bad for a teen-ager to disagree with his or her classmates.
D) Most teen-agers claim that they want to do what they like to, but they are actually doing the same.
注:
1.与文章最后一句话相反
2.no + n. 中no 相当于not any 表示没有任何的,为绝对化语气 no + adj. 中no 表示否定

9. The author thinks of advertisements as ____.
A) convincing   B) influential   C) instructive   D) authoritative
注:
态度题,找作者直接评价语句,倒数第二段,应该是负评价。
convincing 有说服力的
authoritative 权威的
instructive 有启发性的,有教育意义的
influential 有影响的 A、C、D都属于正面评价,只有B为中性评价

10. During the teen-age years, one should learn to ____.
A) differ from others in as many ways as possible  
B) get into the right season and become popular
C) find one's real self                           
D) rebel against parents and the popularity waves
注:
考最后一段,作者提出的建议
33
2010-08-12 13:45 编辑:juliatt
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