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【阅读辅导】新东方四级学习笔记阅读(一)

所属:四六级英语 作者:webmaster 阅读:5582 次 评论:0 条 [我要评论]  [+我要收藏]

按照内容分为两类:

一、文科文章两点注意:

    1.文章态度 2.抓住文章主题1)把握主题后不会偏差理解。 2)与主题相关的选项为优选选项。

二、理科文章

    1.试验型(Study/Experiment/Research/Test2.科技成果型(e.g. Artificial Heart3.现象解释型

按照体裁分为三类:

一、 说明文

      1.抓住说明对象 2.重要数据事实

二、 议论文

      属于文科类文章

三、 记叙文

阅读中难点句型:

一、  多重复合句----关键抓住主句主干成分

二、  多重并列句----两个主句并列在一起,而非主句从句嵌套在一起

三、  强调句----被强调部分为主语、宾语、状语 It is that…

四、  被动句----基本结构 A is done by B

五、  倒装句----否定词 hardly, rarely, seldom, never, not until, not only 引起句子倒装

六、  省略句----e.g. He is a good man, so am I.

建议采用的阅读方法

一、扫描题干,大致了解题目类型及分布,将其中细节题题干关键词划出。

二、 速读原文,遇到题干关键词或其同义词时做适当标记;关注考试原则句。

     考试原则句:重要句(各段首句,文章末句,结论解释句),转折句,条件句,因果关系句,复合句等难句(多重复合、多重并列、强调句、倒装句),时间,数字,人名,比较。

三、 定位答案,正确选项为文章对应语句的同义改写。

题型攻略:

一、主题题 (main idea/ mainly/ mainly discuss/mainly concerned/ central/ primary)

两种变体:1.写作目的题型 purpose of writing  2.文章标题题型 the best title

   做题方法:1.找主题句

2.找主体词(通常在文章中出现频率较高,往往在第一段出现,且带有概括性的词

二、细节题

   类型:1.对错题  2.例证题 3.一般细节题

做题方法:准确定位

三、词汇题

  类型:1.指代  2.词义题

  做题方法:1.根据上下文关系

            2.构词法(词根词缀)

  st(位置不变):stay--stand--stationary--street--star--statue--status

  pose(放置):position-expose (ex向外: exit-export)

  propose (pro向前)

  suppose (sup/sub在下面: subway--submarine)

  depose (de否定)

deposit (de向下)

  interpose (inter: internet, international)

背单词方法

1. 词根词缀

2. 阅读记忆

3. 联想记忆

   如:handsome(其中:h很,s帅,m嘛→英俊的)

       morosemo没有,rose玫瑰→郁闷的)

       ancillaryan + cillary希拉里→辅助的)

四、推理题 (infer-imply-suggest-indicate-conclude)

  正确答案特点:文章对应内容的同义改写

五、作者态度题 (attitude-be seen as)

  做题方法:1.找作者直接评价语句 2.找表达感情色彩的形容词、动词、副词

Questions 21 to 25 are based on the following passage:

Oceanography has been defined as 'The application of all sciences to the study of the sea'.

    注:1.Oceanography Ocean (海洋) 和 graphy (学科)组成,意为海洋学

        2.application 表示申请用介词for,表示应用用介词to

        3.第一句给某个东西下定义,为篇章定义,必为文章主题

Before the nineteenth century, scientists with an interest in the sea were few and far between. Certainly Newton considered some theoretical aspects of it in his writings, but he was reluctant (不愿意) to go to sea to further his work.

    注:1.第二段:在十九世纪之前,对海洋感兴趣的科学家很少,可以推断本文根据时间顺序来描述海洋学发展的过程

         2.further 跟在 to 后面是个动词,表示推进

For most people the sea was remote, and with the exception of early intercontinental travelers or others who earned a living from the sea, there was little reason to ask many questions about it, let alone to ask what lay beneath the surface. The first time that the question 'What is at the bottom of the oceans?' had to be answered with any commercial consequence was when the laying of a telegraph cable from Europe to America was proposed. The engineers had to know the depth profile (起伏形状) of the route to estimate the length of cable that had to be manufactured.

1. remote 遥远的

    2. and with...多重复合句

    3. intercontinental 洲际的 (Inter 在之间,continent 大洲)

    4. let alone 更不用说……

    5. first time 由不感兴趣转折到感兴趣 ,谓语是 was

    6. 第二句that引导同位语从句,when引导表语从句,整句意思为当有人基于商业目的建议在美国和欧洲之间铺设电报电缆的时候,人们才提出问题:海底是什么?

    7.route 路线  router 路由器

It was to Maury of the US Navy that the Atlantic Telegraph Company turned, in 1853, for information on this matter. In the 1840s, Maury had been responsible for encouraging voyages during which soundings (测深) were taken to investigate the depths of the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Later, some of his findings aroused much popular interest in his book The Physical Geography of the Sea.

注:1. it was ...that...强调句型

    2. turn to sb. for sth. 向某人请教某事

    3. 出现问题中划线词:Maury,1840s

        3. investigate 调查, 测量

The cable was laid, but not until 1866 was the connection made permanent and reliable. At the early attempts, the cable failed and when it was taken out for repairs it was found to be covered in living growths, a fact which defied contemporary scientific opinion that there was no life in the deeper parts of the sea.

注:1.not until 引导的句子要倒装

    2.living growth 生物

    3.a fact 作同位语

    4.contemporary  当代的

      5.defy 前后意思相反,可以推出24题答案为C

24. 'Defied' in the 5th paragraph probably means ________

A) 'doubted'  B) 'gave proof to'  C) 'challenged'  D) 'agreed to'

注:词汇题。定位倒数第二段

Within a few years oceanography was under way. In 1872 Thomson led a scientific expedition (考察), which lasted for four years and brought home thousands of samples from the sea. Their classification and analysis occupied scientists for years and led to a five-volume report, the last volume being published in 1895.

注:oceanography 最末一段与第一段首句都出现 oceanagraphy, 回环结构。

21. The passage implies that the telegraph cable was built mainly _________.

A) for oceanographic studies      B) for military purposes

C) for business considerations     D) for investigating the depths of the oceans

注:推理题。定位第三段,倒数第三行。选项 D 的内容出现在第四段,为窜段选项

For most people the sea was remote, and with the exception of early intercontinental travelers or others who earned a living from the sea, there was little reason to ask many questions about it, let alone to ask what lay beneath the surface. The first time that the question 'What is at the bottom of the oceans?' had to be answered with any commercial consequence was when the laying of a telegraph cable from Europe to America was proposed. The engineers had to know the depth profile (起伏形状) of the route to estimate the length of cable that had to be manufactured.

22. It was ________ that asked Maury for help in oceanographic studies.

A) the American Navy                   B) some early intercontinental travellers

C) those who earned a living from the sea    D) the company which proposed to lay an undersea cable

注:细节题。定位第四段,选项 BC段选项

It was to Maury of the US Navy that the Atlantic Telegraph Company turned, in 1853, for information on this matter. In the 1840s, Maury had been responsible for encouraging voyages during which soundings (测深) were taken to investigate the depths of the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Later, some of his findings aroused much popular interest in his book The Physical Geography of the Sea.

23. The aim of voyages Maury encouraged in the 1840s was __________.

A) to make some sound experiments in the oceans      B) to collect samples of sea plants and animals

C) to estimate the length of cable that was to be made   D) to measure the depths of two oceans

注:1.细节题。定位第四段,第二行。2.B C 段选项,A选项中的sound和文章中的sounding含义不同。

24. 'Defied' in the 5th paragraph probably means ________

A) 'doubted'  B) 'gave proof to'  C) 'challenged'  D) 'agreed to'

注:词汇题。定位倒数第二段,defy 前后意思相反,可以推出24题答案为C

25. This passage is mainly about _________

A) the beginnings of oceanography    B) the laying of the first undersea cable

C) the investigation of ocean depths   D) the early intercontinental communications

注:主题题。主题关键词为oceanography

42
2010-08-12 12:15 编辑:juliatt
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