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【语法辅导】语法词汇指导:虚拟语气详解

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第一部分:语气的定义和种类
1 语气(mood)
语气是动词的一种形式,表示说话人对某一行为或事情的看法和态度。
2 语气的种类
⑴、陈述语气:表示动作或状态是现实的、确定的或符合事实的,用于陈述句、疑问句和某些感叹句。如:
①There are two sides to every question.每个问题都有两个方面。
②Were you busy all day yesterday?昨天一整天你都很忙吗?
③How good a teacher she is!她是多好的一位老师啊!
⑵、祈使语气:表示说话人对对方的请求或命令。如:
①Never be late again!再也不要迟到了。
②Don’t forget to turn off the light.别忘了关灯。
⑶、虚拟语气:表示动作或状态不是客观存在的事实,而是说话人的主观愿望、假设或推测等。如:
①If I were a bird, I could fly in the air.如果我是一只小鸟,我就能在空中飞行。
②I wish I could pass the examination.我希望我能通过考试。
③May you succeed!祝您成功!
虚拟语气在语法里算得上是个难点。让我们就从最简单的开始吧。
 
第二部分:简单句中的虚拟语气
一、情态动词的过去式用于现在时态时,表示说话人的谦虚、客气、有礼貌、或委婉的语气,常用于日常会话中。如:
⑴.Would you be kind enough to show me the way to the post office?请你告诉我去邮局的路好吗?
⑵.It would be better for you not to stay up too late.你最好别熬夜到很晚。
二、表祝愿。
1、常用“may+动词原形”表示祝愿,但愿,此时may须置于句首(多用于正式文体中)。
⑴、May good luck be yours!祝你好运!
⑵、May you be happy!祝你快乐!
⑶、May you do even better!祝你取得更大成就!
⑷、May you have a good time. 祝愿你玩的痛快。
⑸、May the friendship between us last long. 祝愿我们的友情天长地久。
⑹、May you be happy. (注意那个be ) 祝你幸福。
2、用动词原形。例如:
(1).Long live the people! 人民万岁!
(2).“God bless you,”said the priest.牧师说:“愿上帝保佑你!”
(3).Have a good journey! 祝愿你旅途愉快!
三、表示强烈愿望。(该类型虚拟语气谓语仅用动词原形,第三人称单数也不加“s”)
(1).God save me.
(2).Heaven help us.
四、表命令
1.命令虚拟语气只能用在第二人称(you),而且通常省略主语(也就是you)。
2.句子尾通常加上感叹号:!
3.虚拟语气动词用一般现在时态(Simple Present),如:work, be , go
4.否定形式的命令语气,可用助动词do,加上not。
(1). Work !
(2). Work harder !
(3). Be more alert ! (虚拟语气动词Be)
(4). You go out !
(5). Do not work so hard. (do not 表示否定的虚拟语气)
(6). Don't be afraid. (口语中常用don't 代替do not)
五、在一些习惯表达中。如:
(1).You’d better set off now.你最好现在就出发。
(2).I’d rather not tell you the secret.我情愿不告诉你这个秘密。
第三部分:名词性从句中的虚拟语气
第一节:宾语从句(Subordinate Clasue)中的虚拟语气
一、在动词wish后的宾语从句中的虚拟语气
在动词wish后的宾语从句中的虚拟语气,常省去宾语从句的引导词that。
一)、对现在情况的虚拟(与现在的事实相反):
从句用过去式或过去进行式(时间上是同时的)。其句子结构为:宾语从句的谓语be和were(was),实义动词用过去式。例:
1. I wish (that可省略,下同)I knew the answer to the question.(wish, 动词过去式knew)我希望知道这个答案。(事实上是不知道)
2. I wish it were spring in my hometown all the year around.(wish, were)但愿我的家乡四季如春。(事实上不可能)
3. I wish I were a bird.(wish, were)但愿我是只小鸟。(事实上不可能)
4. When she was at the party,she wished she were at home.(wished,过去虚拟动词were)(事实上并不在家)
5. Now that he is in China, he wishes he understood Chinese.(wishes,过去虚拟动词understood)
现在他在中国,他希望能懂得中文。(事实上并不懂)
6. When we begin the trip, they will wish they were with us.(will wish,过去虚拟动词were)(事实上并不和我们在一起)
二)、对过去情况的虚拟(和过去的事实相反):
用wish表示对过去事情的遗憾。其句子结构为:宾语从句的谓语用过去完成时,或would, could, might+现在完成时。例:
1. I wish (that可省略,下同)I hadn't wasted so much time.
我后悔不该浪费这么多时间。(事实上已浪费了)
2. He wishes he hadn't lost the chance.
他真希望没有失去机会。(其实已失去)
3. We wished he had spoken to us.
(wished,had + spoken)(事实上他并没同我们讲)
4. I wish you had called earlier.
(wish, had + called)(事实上已迟了)
5. They will wish they had listened to us sooner.
(will wish,had + listened)(事实上并不如此)
例题分析:I wish I ______ longer this morning, but I had to get up and come to class.
A. could have slept   B. slept  C. might have slept   D. have slept
动词wish后面接从句,表达不可能实现或与事实相反的情况时,谓语动词要用虚拟语气,即用过去式(表示现在发生的动作)或过去完成式(表示过去发生的动作)。本题后半句谓语动词have用的是过去时had
to get up and come, 所以前面要用过去完成时表示过去发生的动作。所以, 选项A)could have slept是答案
三)、对将来情况的虚拟(表示将来的主观愿望):
从句动词"would/should/could/might + 动词原形"(时间上较后)(请注意:主句和从句的主语不相同)。用wish表示对将来事情的愿望。例:
1. I wish it would stop raining.(虚拟动词would+动词原形stop)
我希望雨能停止。(事实上雨还在下着呢)
2. I wish you would be quiet.(would + be)
我希望你安静一些。(事实上那家伙还在吵着呢)
3. You wished she would arrive the next day.(would + arrive)
你希望她第二天会到。(事实上她还没到)
4. I wish she would change her mind.(would + change)
我希望她会改变主意。(呵呵,女孩子可没那么容易就改变主意喔)
5. He will wish we would join him the following week.(would + join)
(只是希望我们和他在一起,实际上还没在一起)
四)、注意:
1.如果将wish改为过去式wished, 其后that 从句中的动词形式不变。例如:
I wished I hadn't spent so much money.
我要是那时没有花掉那么多钱就好了。
2. 如果that 从句中用would , 一般表示对现状不满或希望未来有所改变或请求
I wish he would answer my letter.
I wish prices would come down.
I wish you would help me.
I wish you would stop asking silly questions.
 
二、在表示建议、命令、要求、忠告等动词的后面的宾语从句中的虚拟语气
由于这些动词本身隐含说话者的主观意见,认为某事应该或不应该怎样,这些词语后面的“that”从句应用虚拟语气,且均以“should+动词原形”表示这种语气,但事实上“should”常被省略,故此从句中谓语动词用原形,常用的此类动词有:
表示“要求”的:ask, desire, request, demand, require, beg
表示“提议、劝告、建议”的:move, prpose, suggest, recommend, advise, vote
表示“决定、命令”的:decide, order
表示“主张”的:maintain, urge
表示“同意、坚持”的:consent, insist
例如:
1.The doctor suggested that he (should) try to lose his weight.
2.He insisted that we (should ) tell him the news.
3.When I suggested that he try shaving cream, he said, “The razor and water do the job. ”(当我建议他用刮胡膏时,他说“剃刀和水就行了”。)
4.He pursued various theories for several days until I suggested we take the toy apart to see how it did work. (他费了几天功夫寻找理论根据,直到我建议拆开看看它是如何转动的。)
5.One can suggest that students should spend two or three years in an English��speaking country. (我们建议学生应在说英语的国家呆上两三年。)
在表示命令、建议、要求等一类动词后面的从句中虚拟语气很普遍,其结构如:
order, suggest, propose, require, demand, request, insist, command, insist +... (should) do
6.I suggest that we (should) hold a meeting next week.
7.He insisted that he (should ) be sent there.
但注意:在insist 后的从句中, 如果是坚持自己, 用陈述语气, 坚持别人做什么事情, 用虚拟语气.
8.she insists that she is right.
9.she insisted that I should finish the work at once.
或者说,suggest, insist不表示建议或坚持要某人做某事时,即它们用于其本意暗示、表明、坚持认为时,宾语从句用陈述语气。
10.The guard at gate insisted that everybody obey the rules. 
判断改错:
(错)11. You pale face suggests that you (should) be ill.
(对)12. Your pale face suggests that you are ill.
(错)13. I insisted that you ( should) be wrong.
(对)14. I insisted that you were wrong.
例题分析:15.It is politely requested by the hotel management that radios ______ after 11 o'clock at night.
A. were not played   B. not be played
C. not to play     D. did not play
全句意思是:“旅馆管理部门恳请客人晚上11点后不要打开收音机”。句中的谓语动词request(请求)所引出的从句应当用虚拟语气,即动词原形或“should+动词原形”。本句的主语从句中,主语radio是谓语动词play 的客体,谓语应当用被动语态。所以,答案是C) not be played。在上述这类句子中不能用动词过去时形式表示虚拟语气,所以A)不正确。选项B) not to play是动词带to的不定式,不能在句中作谓语。选项D)did not play也是动词play的过去时形式,同样不能在本句中作为虚拟语气来使用。而且,它是主动语态形式,而本题要用被动语态。
练习:
16). The chairman requested that .
[A]the members studied more carefully the problem
[B]the problem was more carefulnessly studied
[C]with more carefulness the problem could be studied
[D]the members study the problem more carefully
17). The committee recommends that the matter at the next meeting .
[A]would be discussed
[B]will be discussed
[C]be discussed
[D]may be discussed
18). The doctor insisted that his patient .
[A]that he not work too hard for three months
[B]take it easy for three months
[C]taking it easy inside of three months
[D]to take some vacations for three months
三、在expect, believe, think, suspect等动词的否定或疑问形式后的宾语从句中的虚拟语气
在expect, believe, think, suspect等动词的否定或疑问形式后的宾语从句中,我们经常用“should+动词原形(或完成形式)”,表示惊奇,怀疑,不满等。
I never thought that he should be such a brave young soldier.
我们从来没想到他是个如此勇敢的小战士。
练习:
1) that the time will soon be ripe for intervention in Iran,they would be faced by a large army?
[A]It is believed
[B]Should they believe
[C]They would believe
[D]If they would believe
2) I think it advisable that he for Tokyo soon.
[A]will leave
[B]may leave
[C]leave
[D]leaves
 
四、would rather , would sooner,had rather, would (just) as soon ,would prefer之后的宾语从句中的虚拟语气
would rather , would sooner, had rather, would (just) as soon,would prefer(希望)也用来表达主观愿望,它们之后的宾语从句中需用虚拟语气。谓语动词用过去式表示现在或将来,用过去完成式表示与过去事实相反。表示”宁愿做什么”或"对过去做的事的懊悔"。
(1).I would rather he came tomorrow than today.
(2).John would rather that she had not gone to the party yesterday evening.
(3).Don' t live in the world, I would rather( I would just as soon) you die.
(4).I would rather you go tomorrow.
(5).I would rather everything hadn' t happened in the past.
(6).The manager would rather his daughter did not work in the same office.经理宁愿她女儿不与他在同一间办公室工作。
(7).To be frank,I'd rather you were not involved in the case.坦率地说,我希望你不要卷入这件事。
(8).You don't have to be in such a hurry.I would rather you went on business first.你没有必要这么着急,我宁愿你先去上班。
(9).I'd rather you didn't make any comment on the issue for the time being.我倒希望你暂时先不要就此事发表意见。
(10).Frankly speaking ,I'd rather you didn't do anything about it for the time being.坦白地说,我宁愿你现在对此事什么也不要做。
(11).Wouldn't you rather your child went to bed early?为什么你不愿让你的孩子早点上床呢?
(12).I would just as soon you had returned the book yesterday.我真希望你昨天把这本书还了。
注:①若某人愿自己做某事,would rather后用动词原形
I would rather stay at home today.
②would rather...than...中用动词原形
I would rather stay at home than go out today.
五、“had hoped”后的宾语从句中的虚拟语气
用“had hoped”表示原来希望做到而实际上未能实现的事情,其宾语从句的谓语用“would+动词原形”。
I had hoped that she would go to the U.S. and study there, but she said she liked to stay in China.我原本希望她到美国去念书,但她说她喜欢留在中国。
第二节:主语从句中的虚拟语气
一、“It is (was)+形容词(或过去分词)+that……”结构中的虚拟语气
在形如“It is (was)+形容词(或过去分词)+that……”结构中,使用某些表示愿望、建议、请求、命令、可能、适当、较好、迫切、紧近、重要等形容词后的主语从句的谓语也用虚拟语气。其表达形式为should +动词原形或省略should直接用动词原形(美国英语中省去should)
常用的形容词:* natural (自然的), appropriate (适当的),advisable (合适的), preferable (更可取的), better (更好的)* necessary (必须的), important (重要的), imperative (急需的), urgent (急迫的), essential (本质的), vital (必不可少的)* probable (很可能的), possible (可能的)* desirable (极好的)advisable(合理的),compulsory(必须的),crucial(紧急的),desirable(理想的),essential(必要的),imperative(迫切的),incredible(惊人的),necessary(必要的),possible(可能的),strange(奇怪的),urgent(紧迫的)。
常用的过去分词(Past Participle):* required (需要的), demanded (要求), requested (被请求的), desired (要求)* suggested (建议), recommended (推荐)* orderd (命令)
1. It is necessary that we (should 可省略,下同)have a walk now.(necessary, should + have) (表示有需要去散步)
2.It was necessary that we (should) make everything ready ahead of time.(necessary, should + make) (表示有必要事先做好准备)
3. It is required that nobody (should) smoke here.(required, should + smoke) (表示要求不要在此抽烟)
4. It is important that every pupil (should) be able to understand therule of school.(important, should + be) (表示重要的是学生都能了解校规)
5. It's important that we (should) take good care of the patient.(important, should + take) (表示重要的是照顾好病人)
6. It is natural that she should do so. (形容词natural, should+动词原形do)
7.It is essential that these application forms be sent back as early as possible.这些申请表应尽早地寄回,这是很重要的。
8.It is vital that enough money be collected to fund the project.重要的是募集足够的钱,为这个项目提供资金。
9.It is desired that we(should)get everything ready this evening.希望我们今晚一切都准备就绪。
注:在上述所列形容词后面用that引出的宾语从句中,谓语动词也要用虚拟语气。
10.I don't think it advisable that Tom be assigned to the job since he has no experience.汤姆缺乏经验,指派他做这项工作我认为是不恰当的。
二、在It is +名词+that…的主语从句中的虚拟语气
在It is +名词+that的主语从句中,常用虚拟语气,表示建议、命令、请求、道歉、怀疑、惊奇等。这类名词
有:advice ,decision ,desire ,demand ,idea,motion ,order,pity ,preference ,proposal,recommendation ,
requirement,resolutionshame,suggestion,surprise,wish,wonder等。
⑴、It is my proposal that he be sent to study further abroad.我建议派他去国外进一步学习
第三节:虚拟语气用在表语从句或同位语从句中
当某些表示建议、请求、命令等主观意向的名词作主语时,其后的表语从句或同位语从句需用虚拟语气,其表达形式为should +动词原形或直接用动词原形。这类名词常见的有:
demand (要求), desire (请求),requirment (要求)
advice (劝告), recommendation (建议),suggestion (建议)
order (命令)
necessity (必要地), preference (优先)
proposal (计划), plan (计划), idea (办法),
recommendation以及plan,idea,resolution等。
We are all for your proposal that the discussion be put off.我们都赞成你提出的将讨论延期的建议。
The suggestion that the mayor present the prizes was accepted by
everyone.由市长颁发奖金的建议被每个人接受。
⑴、 The advice is that we (should 可省略,下同) leave at once.
(名词advice,should + leave) (表示加以劝告)
⑵、 My idea is that we (should) get more people to attend the
conference.
(idea, should + get) (表示做出主意)
⑶、 I make a proposal that we (should) hold a meeting next week.
(proposal, should + hold) (表示做出计划)
⑷、 The judge assented to the suggestion that .
[A]both of the criminals will soon be set freedom
[B]some of the criminals there are of guilt only
[C]the girl was to be paroled in the custody of a welfare society
[D]the prisoner be sentenced to death

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2010-08-09 17:13 编辑:rbhsyj
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