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The question is as horrifying as it is important to ask: Why are a rising number of French women killing their newborn babies? Finding the answer has become a matter of urgency following the discovery on Wednesday of eight infants allegedly smothered to death and buried by their mother in northern France. And with that case marking at least the fifth instance of multiple infanticide reported in France since 2003, it has become vital for the nation to confront the phenomenon that appears to be behind it all: a mental condition known as pregnancy denial.
八具小尸体分别在两处住宅花园被发现,Villiers-au-Tertre镇南部的最新的新生儿谋杀案由此浮出水面。警方在45岁的Dominique Cottrez和他47岁的丈夫Pierre-Marie家中的发现了其中六具尸体。7月24日Dominique旧居的新主人在后院挖游泳池时发现了两具婴儿尸体后警方搜查了Dominique的房屋。里尔市南边不远的这座小镇上指挥调查的检察官称,Dominique已经承认自己向丈夫隐瞒了怀孕的事实,杀害了她的孩子,警方称,丈夫对此“目瞪口呆”。 现在Dominique被控谋杀,Pierre-Marie排除作案嫌疑已被释放,但仍可能成为调查对象。
This latest case of newborn murder in France was uncovered in the northern town of Villiers-au-Tertre, after eight tiny bodies were found buried in the gardens of two separate homes. Six of the cadavers were unearthed on July 29 by police at the house of Dominique Cottrez, 45, and her husband Pierre-Marie, 47. Investigators searched their home after the resident of a house previously owned by Dominique's parents turned up two tiny bodies on July 24 while digging a pool in the backyard. According to the French prosecutor leading the inquiry in the town, a short distance south of Lille, Dominique has admitted to hiding her pregnancies — and the killings of her babies — from her husband, whom police describe as being "dumbstruck" by the revelations. Dominique was charged for the murders; Pierre-Marie has been cleared of wrongdoing and released but could yet become a subject of investigation.
Villiers-au-Tertre这个案例中的Pierre-Marie只是众多不知道妻子怀孕的受害婴儿的父亲中最新的典型。2003年以来的其他四起案件中,42岁的Véronique Courjault在2009年因为杀害了自己的三个新生儿而被定罪(她把其中的两个藏在冰库中,后来被丈夫发现。去年3月,38岁的Céline Lesage也因为相同的原因被定罪:她对孩子的父亲隐瞒了怀孕的事实后杀死了六个孩子。这两个人都被判处有期徒刑:Courjault8年、 Lesage15年。
The case in Villiers-au-Tertre is only the most recent example of a father of slain babies being apparently unaware of his wife's pregnancies. Four other such cases since 2003 include that of Véronique Courjault, 42, who was convicted in June 2009 of killing three of her newborns — two of whom she hid in a freezer and were later discovered by her husband. And this past March, Céline Lesage, 38, was found guilty of murdering six of her babies after she hid her pregnancies from the men who had fathered them. Both women were sentenced to prison — Courjault for eight years and Lesage for 15.
专家称这些案件都是否认怀孕的结果,这是一种经常被误解、被轻视的心理状况。Michel Delcroix是一名妇科医生,他以前是怀孕方面案件(包括Courjault案件)的法庭专家。他说,怀孕否认是一种精神分裂状态,这种情况下女性不是意识不到她们生了小孩就是无法接受这个事实,正是因为如此甚至不会去流产。Delcroix解释到,由于怀孕否认的作用太强,无论病人是在生产前还是在生产中受到这种心理的折磨,她们都无法相信自己怀孕了,即便事实就摆在她们面前也是如此。
Experts explained those cases as resulting from pregnancy denial, an often misunderstood and minimized condition. According to Michel Delcroix, a former gynecologist who served as a court expert in the Courjault trial and others involving pregnancy issues, pregnancy denial is a quasi-schizophrenic condition in which women either don't realize or cannot accept that they are with child — not even enough to have an abortion. Whether these women are afflicted with the condition before they deliver or as they're suddenly giving birth, Delcroix explains, the psychological denial is so strong that they refuse to believe they're pregnant even when the reality confronts them.
"These women are so convinced pregnancy is impossible that once the child they never wanted arrives, they don't accept it as real and get rid of it to restore order to what they believe is nonpregnant reality," Delcroix says. "However terrible its consequences, pregnancy denial acts in infanticide cases much as a psychotic state that drives someone to kill another person does. Yet we still try women for what they do during pregnancy denial when we don't try psychotic killers deemed not responsible for their actions." Delcroix and others who are fighting for pregnancy denial to be medically and legally recognized as an illness argue that improving ways to identify and treat these women makes more sense than simply punishing the crimes they commit as a result of it.
这种心理状况是由什么引起的呢?Delcroix说,有几个原因,比如说之前有过被武力或性侵犯造成了心理创伤,但是非物质因素也可能是原因之一。即使女性已经顺利地生育抚养过小孩,这种心理状态仍然可能出现:Lesage有个14岁的儿子,Dominique Cottrez有两个长大成人的女儿。Delcroix说,怀孕否认可能持续数十年甚至更长,但这期间它发生的频率会一直增加。他说,社会轻视养育子女和抚养家庭的价值可能也是原因之一。
What causes the condition? Several things, Delcroix says, including previous trauma such as beatings and rape. But other, nonphysical factors can also be involved, and denial can kick in even if a woman has already had and raised children without a problem — Lesage has a 14-year-old son; Dominique Cottrez has two grown daughters. And while pregnancy denial has been around for decades or longer, Delcroix says it's rising in frequency. The probable reason, he says, is changes in wider social factors that have downgraded the value of childhood, parenting and family.
在一些案件中,事情仅仅是因为女性无法把自己是做母亲。“有些女性在怀孕期间从来没想过要升级自己的自我定位,还有些怀孕的女性根本不想要小孩。”精神病专家Pierre Lamothe周四告诉《巴黎人报》,“这些小孩降生的时候,它们在其的母亲眼里并非真的存在。从心理上讲,她们不想给它生命。如果她们真的把它们当(真的)小孩就不会杀它们了。
But in some cases, it can also be a matter of women simply failing to see themselves as mothers. "Some women never manage to update their self-identity during pregnancy, [while others] want to become pregnant without wanting to procreate," psychiatrist Pierre Lamothe told Le Parisien on Thursday. "When the child arrives, it doesn't really exist for them. They don't give it life, in psychological terms. If they saw it as a [real] baby, they wouldn't kill it."
Others just never realize — or acknowledge — that they're with child. Experts on pregnancy denial say most sufferers are either sufficiently overweight or experience such little body change that they simply assume they've gained some weight. In France, 230 women a year discover their pregnancy only while giving birth. Though just a fraction resort to infanticide, Delcroix fears there are more of those cases that remain undiscovered than there are ones that come to light, as in Villiers-au-Tertre. And he poses a chilling question: Does anyone really believe that the spreading phenomenon of pregnancy denial — and the infanticide it can lead to — is purely a French problem?
标签:法国 孩子 女人
2010-08-05 23:45 编辑:kuaileyingyu