在线词典,在线翻译

《卫报》人类可以活到1000岁?

所属:生活杂谈 作者:webmaster 阅读:13270 次 评论:1 条 [我要评论]  [+我要收藏]

奥布里·德格雷(Aubrey de Grey)留着胡子並且发表意见信心十足,颇有旧约先知的味道。不过这位47岁的老年病学家(研究老化过程者)表示,他相信自己有可能活到1000岁,是根据科学而不是根据信仰。德格雷以前在剑桥大学研读计算机科学,但是十多年前开始对老化问题感兴趣,是位于美国的非营利组织桑斯(Sens——Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence)基金会的共同创始人。
With his beard and robust opinions, there's something of the Old Testament prophet about Aubrey de Grey. But the 47-year-old gerontologist (who studies the process of ageing) says his belief that he might live to the very ripe old age of 1,000 is founded not on faith but science. De Grey studied computer science at Cambridge University, but became interested in the problem of ageing more than a decade ago and is the co-founder of the Sens (Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence) Foundation, a non-profit organisation based in the US.
为什么年纪大会出毛病?
What's so wrong with getting old?
简单地说,人变老的时候会生病。很少人会想要罹患心血管或其他疾病,我们之所以会得到这些疾病,是因为分子与细胞损伤,一生积累的结果。这些损伤保持在低水平是无害的,不过到了老年,终将导致疾病与残障——这是大多数人所不喜欢的。
It is simply that people get sick when they get older. I don't often meet people who want to suffer cardiovascular disease or whatever, and we get those things as a result of the lifelong accumulation of various types of molecular and cellular damage. This is harmless at low levels but eventually it causes the diseases and disabilities of old age – which most people don't think are any fun.
老化是世界最大的健康危机?
Is this the biggest health crisis facing the world?
绝对是。工业国家基本上所有死亡的90%是老化引起的。这些死因只影响老年人,不影响年轻人。就全世界而言,每天约150,000人死亡,其中大约三分之二是因为老化。
Absolutely. If we look at the industrialised world, basically 90% of all deaths are caused by ageing. They are deaths from causes that affect older people and don't affect young adults. And if we look at the whole world, then the number of deaths that occur each day is roughly 150,000 and about two-thirds of them are because of ageing.
为什么社会没有认识到这一点?
Why does the world not recognise this?
自古以来,一直有人声称能够克服老化问题,却总是不怎么成功;人们趋于相信老化无可避免——老化问题超乎我们的科技能力,这完全是一派胡言。
People have been trying to claim that we can defeat ageing since the dawn of time, and they haven't been terribly successful; there is a tendency to think there is some sort of inevitability about ageing – it somehow transcends our technological abilities in principle, which is complete nonsense.
当人们已经坦然接受这件可怕的事在未来总会发生在自己身上,往往不愿意再讨论关于这方面的新想法。
And when people have made their peace with this ghastly thing that is going to happen to them at some time in the distant future, they tend to be rather reluctant to re-engage the question when someone comes along with a new idea.
老化是不是因为我们的身体不再积极防御?
Is it that our bodies just stop being so proactive about living?
基本上,我们的身体确实有大量的内建抗衰老机器,只不过没有100%囊括,因此少数几种分子与细胞损伤得以发生与积累。我们的身体尽其可能与之抗争,不过注定要失败。因此,没有高科技的介入,老化问题不会有重大进展——我就在从事高科技研究。
Basically, the body does have a vast amount of inbuilt anti-ageing machinery; it's just not 100% comprehensive, so it allows a small number of different types of molecular and cellular damage to happen and accumulate. The body does try as hard as it can to fight these things but it is a losing battle. So we are not going to be able to do anything significant about ageing without hi-tech intervention – which is what I'm working on.
老化涉及代谢,然后衰退,然后发病的过程——对吗?
Ageing involves the process of metabolism, and then deterioration, and then pathology – is that right?
基本上,这是正确的。代谢涉及复杂、相连的生化、细胞过程的网络,只要继续运作,就能维持生命,不过却有些副作用。
Basically, that's right. Metabolism involves a vastly complicated network of biochemical and cellular processes that are linked and that succeed in keeping us alive for as long as they do, but they have these side effects.
这些副作用在我们出生之前就存在,在我们一生中继续进行,表现在诸如细胞内外各种废物分子的积累,以及细胞死亡后,无法自动经由其他的细胞分裂来替换。这些在分子与细胞水平的变化渐渐积累,最终会阻碍代谢,病理问题因而产生。
The side-effects start even before we are born, they go on throughout life and they are manifested as, for example, the accumulation of various types of molecular garbage inside cells and outside cells, or simply as cells dying and not being automatically replaced by the division of other cells. Gradually those changes at the molecular and cellular level accumulate and accumulate and eventually they start to get in the way of metabolism, and that's where pathology comes.
你已经指出了在7个区块可能对抗细胞衰变,能举例吗?
You've identified seven particular areas of cellular decay that might be combated. Can you give examples?
我刚才提到,细胞死亡没有自动替换,这是其一。第二是细胞该死的时候不死——有些类型的细胞应该自绝,有时却会失去回应死亡指令的能力。
I just mentioned cells dying and not being automatically replaced, that's one. Another is cells not dying when they ought to – certain types of cells are supposed to turn over and sometimes they lose the ability to respond to signals that tell them to die.
第三是细胞分裂过多——这类细胞或许会适时死亡,却分裂过多,这就是癌症。
A third is cells dividing too much – they may be dying when they are supposed to but dividing too much, and that is what cancer is.
我们已经知道癌症的成因好一段时间了,不过距离治愈,还有很长的路,不是吗?
We've known what causes cancer for some time but we are a long way from being able to cure it, aren't we?
我当然不是说对抗老化很容易。其中有些是比较容易——但我一直认为癌症是解决老化问题最困难的一面。
I certainly don't claim that any of this is easy. Some of it is easier – but I've always viewed cancer as the single hardest aspect of ageing to fix.
你谈到丰富人的生活,不过难道不是因为死亡的存在,我们的生命才有意义?
You've talked about enriching people's lives, but isn't it the very fact of death that gives our lives meaning?
这种说法没道理。人们不想生病是个事实。我只是个讲实际的人。我不想生病,我也不希望你生病,就是这么一回事。我不是从事长寿的研究,我的工作是让人们健康。我的工作跟整个医疗界的工作唯一不同之处,在于我认为下列目标就在咫尺之间:人们可以保持非常健康,即使到了90岁,每天起床时状态跟自己在30岁时没两样;每天早上永远不能醒来的几率也不高于自己30岁时之几率。
That's nonsense. The fact is, people don't want to get sick. I'm just a practical guy. I don't want to get sick and I don't want you to get sick and that's what this is all about. I don't work on longevity, I work on keeping people healthy. The only difference between my work and the work of the whole medical profession is that I think we're in striking distance of keeping people so healthy that at 90 they'll carry on waking up in the same physical state as they were at the age of 30, and their probability of not waking up one morning will be no higher than it was at the age of 30.
你说当今世上可能有人可以活到1000岁,那个人可能是你吗?
You've said you think the first person to live to 1,000 may already be alive. Could that person be you?
像我这种40几岁的人,还够年轻,能受益于这些疗法是可以相信的。我认为机会是30%到40%。但是我不是为自己而做——而是因为我对于每天解救100,000人的性命感兴趣。
It's conceivable that people in my age bracket, their 40s, are young enough to benefit from these therapies. I'd give it a 30% or 40% chance. But that is not why I do this – I do this because I'm interested in saving 100,000 lives a day.
人活得这么久,地球应付得来吗?
Can the planet cope with people living so long?
这是出生率与死亡率平衡的问题。大约在100或150年以前,我们解决了婴儿死亡问题,之后没多久生育率就下降了。因为人口上扬的风险而拒绝给予人们最好的医疗,我认为是一种不明智的理由。
That's to do with the balance of birth and death rates. It didn't take us too long to lower the birth rate after we more or less eliminated infant mortality 100 or 150 years ago. I don't see that it's sensible to regard the risk of a population spike as a reason not to give people the best healthcare that we can.
标签:人类 卫报
118
2010-08-04 22:50 编辑:kuaileyingyu
分享到:
关注海词微博:
发表评论:
表达一些您的想法吧!已有1条评论>>
登录,再发表评论
文明上网,理性发言!
最新评论:
您可能还感兴趣的文章:
>>精华推荐阅读
热门评论文章